Flowers, Inflorescences, and Fruits III

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Anonymous
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171155
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Flowers, Inflorescences, and Fruits III
Updated:
2012-09-16 11:46:01
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flowers inflorescences fruits
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Terminology on the structure of flowers, inflorescences, and fruits
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  1. In the blooming sequence of an inflorescence, the sequence is top-down or from the center out.
    Cymose/Determinate
  2. An extension of the floral axis between adjacent carpels, as in the fruits of the parsley family
    Carpophore
  3. A series of fused bracts which form a cup beneath the true fruit, as in the acorn
    Cupule
  4. A fruit which opens by sutures, pores, or caps
    Dehiscent
  5. A strongly lobed fruit, thus appearing as a pair
    Didymous
  6. The innermost layer of the fruit wall; in may be soft, papery, or bony
    Endocarp
  7. The outermost layer of the fruit wall; it may be the "skin" of the fruit, a leathery rind or quite hard
    Exocarp
  8. The structure resulting from the coalescence of the separate fruits of an apocarpous gynoecium, as in the raspberry or from the coalescence of the fruits from an entire inflorescence, as in the pineapple
    False fruit
  9. The seed stalk
    Funiculus
  10. A fruit which does not open by sutures, pores, or caps, the seeds being released by the rotting away of the fruit wall
    Indehiscent
  11. A set of separate or fused bracts associated with a fruit, as in the walnut
    Involucre
  12. Lengthwise
    Longitudinal
  13. The middle layer of the fruit wall; often the fleshy edible portion
    Mesocarp
  14. The fruit wall, made up of endocarp, mesocarp, and exocarp
    Pericarp
  15. An internal partition within the fruit
    Septum
  16. A line along which a dehiscent fruit opens
    Suture
  17. Crosswise
    Transverse
  18. Those fruits derived from the synocarpous or apocarpous gynoecium of a single flower; no non-ovary parts present
    True fruit
  19. A segment of a dehisced fruit
    Valve
  20. What are three factors by which fruits are morphologically classified?
    Fleshiness, dehiscence, and carpel number
  21. In a 1-seeded, indehiscent fruit, the seed and pericarp are attached only at the funiculus, the seed usually tightly enclosed by the fruit wall, as in the sunflower and buckwheat
    Achene
  22. In a 1-seeded, indehiscent fruit, an achene with an adnate calyx, as in the aster family
    Cypsela
  23. In a 1-seeded, indeshiscent fruit, a small, bladdery achene-like fruit with the seed loosely surrounded by the fruit wall, as in the pigweed
    Utricle
  24. In a 1-seeded, indeshiscent fruit, the seed and pericarp are completely fused, as in the grass family
    Caryopsis
  25. In a 1-seeded, indehiscent fruit, the achene is winged, as in the elms and ashes
    Samara
  26. In a 1-seeded, indehiscent fruit, derived from a syncarpous gynoecium, but 1-seeded by abortion of carpels; exocarp usually hard, the fruit often subtended by an involucre; walnut, acorn
    Nut
  27. A small nut
    Nutlet
  28. In a 1-seeded, indehiscent fruit, derived from a syncarpous gynoecium, the carpels separating from one another into 1-seeded indehiscent segments, as in the mallow and parsley family
    Schizocarp
  29. In 2-many-seeded, dehiscent fruits, derived exclusively from a syncarpous gynoecium; typically several-to many-seeded (rarely 1-seeded); several types are recognized
    Capsule
  30. In 2-many-seeded, dehiscent fruits, a capsule opening by a series of pores near the top, as in the poppy
    Poricidal
  31. In a 2-many-seeded, dehiscent fruit, the capsule opens by a lid, as in the purslane
    Pyxis
  32. In a 2-many-seeded, dehiscent fruit, the capsule opens apically, leaving a ring of teeth, as in the chickweeds
    Denticidal
  33. In a 2-many-seeded, dehiscent fruit, the capsule dehisces lengthwise, the sutures opening within a locule, as in the iris
    Loculicidal
  34. In a 2-many-seeded, dehiscent fruit, the capsule dehisces lengthwise, the sutures splitting a septum, as in the yucca
    Septicidal
  35. In a 2-many-seeded, dehiscent fruit, the gynoecium is bicarpellate, the walls peeling away from a papery central partition (replum); the fruit type of the mustard family
    Silique
  36. In a 2-many-seeded, dehiscent fruit, a silique that is not 2-3x longer than it is wide
    Silicle
  37. In a 2-many-seeded, dehiscent fruit, unicarpellate, dehiscing along both sutures; the fruit type of the pea family
    Legume
  38. In 2-many-seeded, dehiscent fruits, a legume with pronounced constrictions between the seeds; dehiscing transversely between the seeds
    Loment
  39. In 2-many-seeded, dehiscent fruits, unicarpellate, dehiscing along one suture; note that it may be found in the apocarpous gynoecium (each carpel forming one, as in the rose and magnolia family) or the syncarpous gynoecium by means of the separation of carpels at maturity, as in the milkweeds
    Follicle
  40. In true fruits, the exocarp is the "skin"; mesocarp fleshy; endocarp bony; the seed and endocarp constitute a pyrene; peach
    Drupe
  41. In true fruits, the entire pericarp is soft, as in the tomato or grape
    Berry
  42. In true fruits, a berry with a leathery rind; derived from an inferior ovary; use often restricted to the squash family
    Pepo
  43. In true fruits, the ovary is inferior, surrounded by fleshy tissue usually interpreted as a hypanthium, as in the apple or pear
    Pome
  44. In true fruits, the ovary is superior; septations conspicuous, these lined with fleshy hairs; restricted to the citrus fruits
    Hesperidium
  45. In false fruits, fruit formed from the expanded dome-like receptacle of a single flower; covered with numerous achenes; known only in the strawberry and false strawberry
    Accessory 
  46. Fruit formed from the many separate dry or fleshy fruits of a single flower, as in the raspberry or magnolia
    Aggregate
  47. In false fruits, a vase-like leathery hypanthium containing several achenes; restricted to the rose
    Hip
  48. In false fruits, a fruit derived from the fusion of an entire inflorescence, as in the pineapple or sycamore
    Multiple
  49. In false fruits, a hollow, vase-like inflorescence with the flowers lining the inside; restricted to the fig
    Syconium

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