AP Psychology Unit 3A Vocabulary

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AP Psychology Unit 3A Vocabulary
2012-10-04 12:53:17
AP Psychology Unit 3A Vocabulary

AP Psychology Unit 3A Vocabulary
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  1. A branch of psychology concerned with the link between biology and behavior. (Some of these psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists.)
    Biological Psychology
  2. A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
  3. Neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
    Sensory neurons
  4. Neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands.
    Motor neurons
  5. Neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and interven between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
  6. The bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
  7. The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
  8. A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission spped of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
    Myelin Sheath
  9. A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
    Action potential
  10. The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
  11. The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft.
  12. Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, ________________ travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
  13. A neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron.
  14. "Morphine within" - natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
  15. An excitatory neurotransmitter released by motor neurons. Stimualtes muscle contraction; involved in attention, memory, learning and general intellectual functioning.
  16. An inhibitory neurotransmitter that functions in pleasurable sensations involved in voluntary movement, attention, and learning.
  17. An inhibitory neurotransmitter that affects moods and emotional states, hunger, regulation of sleep and wakefulness (arousal).
  18. An excitatory neurotransmitter used for arousal in the flight/fight response, modulation of mood, plays a role in learning and memory retrieval.
  19. An inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps to offset excitatory messages and regulate daily sleep-wake cycles.
    GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid)
  20. An excitatory neurotransmitter used in memory, learning, movement. Helps messages cross the synapse more efficiently.
  21. The body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems.
    NervousĀ  System
  22. The brain and spinal cord.
    Central NS
  23. The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body.
    Peripheral NS
  24. Bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
  25. The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system.
    Somatic nervous system
  26. The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
    Autonomic nervous system
  27. The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
    Sympathetic nervous system
  28. The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy.
    Parasympathetic nervous system
  29. A simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response.
  30. The body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
    Endocrine system
  31. Chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues.
  32. A pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.
    Adrenal glands
  33. The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growtha nd controls other endocrine glands.
    Pituitary gland
  34. Researchers study the brains of non-human animals because...?
    The same principles govern neural functioning in all species.
  35. A brief electrical charge that travels down an axon is called a(n)...?
    Action potential
  36. The basic building block of the nervous system is the...?
  37. Which of the following does the endocrine system rely on to communicate?
  38. An individual is having trouble with cognitive tasks related to learning and memory. Which of the following neurotransmitters is most likely to be involved with the problem?
  39. The most influential of the endocrine glands is (are) the...
  40. The purpose of the myelin sheath is to...
    Speed the transmission of information within a neuron.
  41. The peripheral nervous system...
    Connects the brain to the spinal cord.
  42. The cells most important for processing information are...
  43. Drugs that amplify neurotransmitter activity are called...
  44. To walk across a street, a person would rely most directly on his...
    Somatic nervous system.
  45. The nervous system is of critical importance to psychology because...
    All psychological processes depend upon it.
  46. Phrenology is the study of...
    the bumps on the skull.
  47. Understanding people as biopsychosocial systems means that...
    To understand people we must study how biological, psychological, and social-cultural systems work and interact.
  48. Opiate drugs such as morphine are classified as...
    Agonists, because they mimic other neurotransmitters' pain-diminishing effects.
  49. A popular but ill-fated theory that claimed bumps on the skull could reveal our mental abilities and our character traits.
  50. Communication to muscles slows, with eventual loss of muscle control.
    Multiple sclerosis
  51. Electrically charged atoms.
  52. The poitive outside/negative inside state of a resting axon (in regards to ions).
    Resting potential
  53. The axon's surface is very selective about what it allows in.
    Selectively permeable
  54. How do positively charged sodium ions depolarize that section of the axon?
    When a neuron fires, the first bit of the axon opens its gates, and the positively charged sodium ions flood through the membrane, depolarizing that section of the axon, causing the axon's next channel open, and then the next.
  55. Neuron signals somewhat like pushing a neuron's accelerator.
  56. Neuron signals more like pushing its brake.
  57. What kind of response is a nearon's reaction?
    All-or-none response: Like guns, neurons either fire or they don't.
  58. What can trigger more neurons to fire, and to fire more often?
    A strong stimulus-a slap rather than a tap.
  59. The separation, less than a millionth of an inch wide, between the axon terminal of one neuron from the receiving neuron.
    Synaptic gap (or synaptic cleft)
  60. May be similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind to its receptor and mimic its effects.
    Agonist molecule
  61. Also bind to receptors but their effect is instead to block a neurotransmitter's functioning.
  62. How do neurons communicate with one another?
    A neuron fires when excitatory inputs exceed inhibitory inputs by a sufficient threshold. When the resulting impulse reaches the axon's end, it triggers the release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. After crossing a tiny gap, these molecules chemically activate receptor sites on neighboring neurons.
  63. Clustered work groups of the brain's neurons.
    Neural networks
  64. An information highway connecting the peripheral nervous system to the brain.
    Spinal cord
  65. An inhibitory neurontransmitter inolved in pain perception and positive emotions. Similar to opiate family of drugs.
  66. Effect of deficit of Acetocholine (Ach).
    Alzheimer's Disease
  67. Effect of surplus of Acetocholine (Ach).
    Severe Muscle Spasms
  68. Effect of deficit of Dopamine (DA).
    Parkinson's Disease
  69. Effect of surplus of Dopamine (DA).
    • 1. Schizophrenia
    • 2. Drug Addiction
  70. What is Dopamine (DA) like?
    Cocaine. Sorta like meth, too.
  71. Effect of Deficit of Serotinin.
    • 1. Depression
    • 2. Mood disorders
  72. Deffect of surplus of Serotonin.
  73. What is Serotinin like?
    LSD and Ecstacy.
  74. Effect of deficit of Nonrepinephrine (NE).
    Mental disorders, especially depression.
  75. Effect of surplus of Norepinephrine (NE).
  76. Effect of deficit of GABA (gamma-ainobutyric acid).
    • 1. Anxiety
    • 2. Seizures
    • 3. Tremors
    • 4. Insomnia
  77. Effect of surplus of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid).
    Sleep and eating disorders.
  78. Effect of deficit of Endorphins.
    Body experiences pain.
  79. Effect of surplus of Endorphins.
    Body may not give adequate warning about pain. Artificial highs.
  80. What is Endorphins like?
    Like morphine, or Heroin.
  81. Effect of surplus of Glutamate.
    Too much glutamate (and too little GABA) associated with epileptic seizures.