HAP 2

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daniellemarie
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171253
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HAP 2
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2012-09-24 22:58:46
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Anatomy
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  1. what is visible evidence of a disease called
    signs
  2. What are high blood pressure, x-rays, or urinalysis examples of
    signs
  3. what are abormality of functions do to disease felt by the patient called
    symptoms
  4. what are fever, nausea, headache, diarrhea, and cramps examples of
    symptoms
  5. what is using the signs and symptoms to determine which disease is affecting the patient called
    diagnosis
  6. what is the collection of signs and symptoms, within a common cause, that distinguishes a specific disease
    syndrome
  7. what is it called when a patients incurs poor immunity, mental retadation, flat face, sparse/straight hair, abnormal palm creases and short in height
    down's syndrome
  8. what causes down syndrome
    abnormalties in the 21st chromosome
  9. what is it called when signs and symptoms appear suddenly but remain only for a short time
    acute disease
  10. what is it called when signs and symptoms develop slowly and last for a long time
    chronic disease
  11. what is the reversal of a chronic disease called
    remission
  12. what is it called when a disease is without a cause
    idiopathic
  13. what is the acutal patten a disease follows called
    pathogenesis
  14. what are the stages of pathogenesis
    • latent
    • disease
    • convalescene
  15. what period of pathogenesis is where the pathogen enters the body and starts reproducing
    latent
  16. what period of pathogenesis is where the patient becomes symptomatic
    disease
  17. what period of pathogenesis is the patient recovery time
    convalescene
  18. what is type of disease can be passed from person to person
    communicable
  19. what is the study of occurence, distribution, and transmission of human diseases called
    epidemiology
  20. what is a disease occuring inn a specific location based on geography and climate
    endemic
  21. what disease spreads to many people at the same time in the same region or area
    epidemic
  22. what is a disease spreading to many people at the same time over a large region possibly world wide
    pandemic
  23. what is the banch of the united states public health agency headquartered in atlanta tracking the incidence and spread of worldwide disease called
    centers for disease control and prevention
  24. what mechanisms of disease occurs when mutated genes cause proteins to be strcutrally and functionally different
    genetic
  25. what mechanims of disease are disease causing organisms, mainly microscopic
    pathogenic organisms
  26. what mechanisms of disease are abnormal tissue growths that impede or alter the funciton of tissues and organs called
    tumors and cancer
  27. what mechanisms of disease are extreme heat and cold, U-V radiation, or chemicals
    physical and chemical agents
  28. what mechanisms of disease is the insufficient intake of nutrients, vitamins, or minerals
    malnutrition
  29. what mechanisms of disease are when someone's own immunie systems cells mistakenly attacks its own tissues
    autoimmunity
  30. what mechanisms of disease is the coordinated response of several difffernt tissues to an injury or infection to restore homeostasis
    inflammation
  31. what mechanism of disease is the gradual deterioration and reduced function of tissues, most commonly asscociated with agin
    degeneration
  32. what mechanism of diseas is sickle cell anemia an example of
    genetic
  33. what mechanism of disease are hyperthermia, hyporthermia, cancer, posions, broken bones and cuts examples of
    physical and chemical agents
  34. what mechanism of disease are HIV viruses and TB bacteria and worms
    pathogenic organisms
  35. what mechanisms of disease are scruvry and kidney stones an example of
    malnutrition
  36. what mechanisms of disease are rheumatioid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and graves disease examples of
    autoimmunity
  37. what mechanims of disease are pain, heat, redness, and swelling examples of
    inflammation
  38. what mechanism of disease are wrinkling, demetia, reduced metabolism, weaker bones, thinner hair, and reduced vision examples of
    degeneration
  39. what are the 8 mechanims of disease
    • genetic
    • pathogenic organisms
    • tumors and cancer
    • physical and chemical agents
    • malnutrition
    • autoimmunity
    • inflammation
    • degeneration
  40. what are causes of homeostatic imbalanced called
    mechanims of disease/etiology
  41. what are conditions which may put someone at a greater chance of contracting a particular disease called
    risk factor
  42. what are the 5 risk factors
    • genetic
    • age
    • lifestyle
    • stress
    • environment
    • preexisitng conditions
  43. what risk factor is light skin or ethnic group mating
    genetic
  44. what risk factor is the biological and behavioral variatons during different times of life
    age
  45. what risk factor is the way we live our day to day lives
    lifestyle
  46. what risk factor is any stimulus that creates an imbalance in the internal environment
    stress
  47. what type of stress causes fractures
    physical
  48. what type of stress leads to hormonal and brain chemcial imbalances
    psychological/emotional
  49. what risk factor is where one lives
    environment
  50. what risk factor is already having, or have had a disease that may make one or more less susceptible
    preexisting conditons
  51. what maintain and restore homeostatis by self regulation
    control loops
  52. what are the three parts of a control loop
    • sensor mechanism
    • intergration/control center
    • effector mechanism
  53. what component of control loops detect and react to any changes from the normal internal environment
    sensor mechanisms
  54. what component of control loops is wehre information is analyzed, intergrated, and initiated
    integrating/control center
  55. what component of control loops is wehre effectors directly influence physiological variables
    effector mechanism
  56. what type of control loop opposes change by creating a response that is opposite in direction to the intial disturbance
    negative
  57. what type of control loop maintains normal ranges or internal environment factors and never stops
    negative
  58. which control loop is more common
    negative
  59. what type of control loop amplify/reinforce the change that is occuring
    positive
  60. what type of control loops leads to an ever increasing rate of events to occur until something stops the process
    positive
  61. what control loop has a beginning and an end
    positive
  62. what are the 5 functions of the skeletal system
    • support
    • protects internal organs
    • movement/leverage
    • storage
    • hemopoiesis
  63. what function of the skeletal system gives the body shape
    support
  64. what function of the skeletal system works with skeletal muscles
    movement/leverage
  65. what substances does the skeletal system store
    • calcium
    • adipose
    • phosphorous
    • potassium
    • sodium
  66. what function of the skeletal systme makes blood cells usually in the sternum, coxae-hips, ribs, vertebrae, clavicle and cranial
    hemopoiesis
  67. what are the four types of bones
    • long
    • short
    • flat
    • irregular
  68. what type of bones are longer than they are wide with expanded proximal and distal ends
    long
  69. what type of bones are cube like and the height and with are the same
    short
  70. what type of bones are plate like with broad surfaces
    flat
  71. what type of bones are not long, short, or flat, and usually connected to several other bones
    irregular
  72. what type of bone is the humerus
    logn
  73. what type of bone is the radius
    long
  74. what type of bone is the ulna
  75. long
  76. what type of bone is the femur
    long
  77. what type of bone is the tibia
    long
  78. what type of bone is the fibula
    long
  79. what type of bone is the phalanges
    long
  80. what type of bones are carpals and tarsals
    short
  81. what type of bone is the scapula
    flat
  82. what type of bone are ribs
    flat
  83. what type of bones are facial and vertebral bones
    irregular
  84. what is the enlarged ends of long bones, made of spongy bone containing red marrow called
    epiphysis
  85. what does spongy bone contain
    red marrow
  86. what is the function of red marrow
    makes blood
  87. what is the cartilage covering epiphysis to prevent bone-bone contact
    articular cartilage
  88. what is the growth plate between the epiphysis and diaphysis of a long bone called
    epiphyseal plate
  89. what is the epiphyseal plate made up of
    cartilage hasnt been converted to bone yet
  90. what can be used to determine a persons age and growth potential
    epiphyseal plate
  91. what is the shaft or length of a long bone found between the proximal epiphysis and distal epiphysis
    diaphysis
  92. what is the otter portion of the diaphysis made up of
    dense/compact bone
  93. what is the inner protion of the diaphysis called
    medullary
  94. what is the space within the diaphysis that contains yellow marrow
    meduallary cavity
  95. what is the epithelial lining of the medullary cavity called
    endosteum
  96. what is the outer, tough covering of the diaphyis called
    periosteum
  97. what is the vertical canal that allows veins, arteries, nerves, and lymphatic vessels to reach the entire lenght of the bone shaft called
    haversian/central canal
  98. what is the concentric, cylinder shaped layers of calcified matrix that encircles haversion canals
    lamellae
  99. what are the small spaces containing tissue fluid in which matrure bone cells are trapped between the hard layers of the lamellae
    lacunae
  100. what are mature bone cells called
    osteocytes
  101. what are the very small canals radiating in all directions from the lacuna and connecting them to each other and to a haversian canal
    caniculi
  102. what are the transverse/horizontal canals that connect the vertial haversion canals to each other
    perforating/volkmann's canal
  103. what are mature, non dividing osteoblast cells that will remain within a lacunae called
    osteocytes
  104. what type of bone cell functions in bone repair and calcium recycling
    osteocytes
  105. what type of bone cells produce the substances to make the hard bone matrix
    osteoblasts
  106. what do osteoblasts become osteocytes
    when they are surrounded by a calcified matrix
  107. what type of bone cell is a very large and multinucleated
    osteoclasts
  108. what type of bone cell digests/erodes bone cells giving them their shpae
    osteoclasts
  109. what cells do osteoclasts resemble and why
    white blood cells-derived from it and digest like them
  110. what are the 3 types of bone cells
    • osteocytes
    • osteoblasts
    • osteoclasts
  111. what type of cells do not innervate with blood vessels so nutrients must diffuse through spaces to reach them
    chondrocytes
  112. what is the process of the cartilage skeleton becoming a bony skeleton called
    endochondrial ossification
  113. what bone marking is a corner
    angle
  114. what bone marking is the main portion of a bone
    body
  115. what bone marking is a narrowed portio usually below the head
    neck
  116. what bone marking is a long, crack like hole between adjacent bones for blood vessels and nerves to pass
    fissure
  117. what bone marking is a rounded opening for nerves, vessels and ligaments
    foramen
  118. what bone marking is a shallow depression in or on a bone that usually recieves an articulating bone
    fossa
  119. what bone marking is a narrow furrow that accommodates a soft structure
    groove/sulcus
  120. what bone marking is an air filled cavity or space within a bone lined with mucous membrane
    sinus
  121. what bone marking is a large rounded articular projection
    • epicondyle
    • condyle
  122. what bone marking is a small, nearly flat surface
    facet
  123. what bone marking is a soft spot of the skull between bones
    fontanel
  124. what bone marking is a large, rounded articular projection supported by a neck
    head/ epiphysis
  125. what bone marking is the interlocking union of bones
    suture
  126. what bone marking is a prominent border or ridge on a bone
    crest
  127. what bone marking is a less prominent boreder of ridge on a bone
    line
  128. what bone marking is the edge of a flat or irregular bone
    margin/border
  129. what bone marking is the extension of bone forming a curve
    ramus
  130. what bone marking is a large, rough projection for muscle attachment
    tochanter
  131. what bone marking is oblong, raised bump for muscle attachment
    tuberosity
  132. what bone marking is a small tuberosity
    tubercle
  133. how many appendicular bones are there
    126
  134. how many axial bones are there
    80
  135. how many clavicle bones are there
    2
  136. how many scapula bones are there
    2
  137. how many humerus bones are there
    2
  138. how many radius bones are there
    2
  139. how many ulna bones are there
    2
  140. how many carpal bones are there
    16
  141. how many metacarpal bones are there
    10
  142. how many hand phalanges are there
    28
  143. how many coxa are there
    2
  144. how many femurs are there
    2
  145. how many patellas ar there
    2
  146. how many tibias are there
    2
  147. how many fibulas are there
    2
  148. how many tarsal bones are there
    14
  149. how many metatarsal bones are there
    10
  150. how many feet phalanges are tehre
    28
  151. how many ear bones are there
    6
  152. how many hyoid bones are there
    1
  153. how many sternums are there
    1
  154. how many ribs are there
    24
  155. how many veterbrae are there
    24
  156. how many sacrums are there
    1
  157. how many coccyx are there
    1
  158. what division of bone is the clavicle
    appendicular
  159. what division of bone is the scapula
    appendicular
  160. what division of bone is the humerus
    appendicular
  161. what division of bone is the radius
    appendicular
  162. what division of bone is the ulna
    appendicular
  163. what division of bone are the carpal bones
    appendicular
  164. what division of bones are the metecarpal bone
    appendicular
  165. what division of bone are the phalanges
    appendicular
  166. what division of bones are the coxa
    appendicular
  167. what division of bones is the femur
    appendicular
  168. what division of bones is the patella
    appendicular
  169. what division of bone is the tibia
    appendicular
  170. what division of bone is the fibula
    appendicular
  171. what division of bone are the tarsal bones
    appendicular
  172. what division of bones are the metatarsal bones
    appendicular
  173. what division of bones are the ear bones
    axial
  174. what division of bones is the hyoid
    axial
  175. what division of bones is the sternum
    axial
  176. what division of bones are the ribs
    axial
  177. what divison of bones are the vertebrae
    axial
  178. what divison of bones is the sacrum
    axial
  179. what division of bones is the coccyx
    axial
  180. what is the only bone without an articulation
    hyoid
  181. what is the name of the shoulder blade
    scapula
  182. what is the name of the upper arm bone
    humerus
  183. what is the bone on the thumb side of the lower arm
    radius
  184. what is the bone on the little finger side of the lower arm
    ulna
  185. what are the irregular bones at upper ends of the hand called
    carpal bones
  186. what bones form the framework of the palm of the hand
    metacarpals
  187. what bones are the finger bones
    phalanges
  188. how many phalanges are in the thumb
    2
  189. what are the hipbones called
    coxal bones
  190. what is the upper flaring part of the coxal called
    illium
  191. what is the lower back part of the hipbone called
    ishium
  192. what is the lower front part on the hipbone called
    pubic bones
  193. what is the hip socket called
    acetabulum
  194. what is the joint in the midline between the two pubic bones called
    symphsis pubic
  195. what is the opening into the pelvic cavity called
    pelvic inlet
  196. what is the upper leg bone called
    femur
  197. what does the head of the femur fit into of the coxal bone
    acetabulum
  198. what is the kneecap called
    patella
  199. what is the shin bone called
    tibia
  200. what is the long sledner bone of the lateral side of the lower leg called
    fibula
  201. what bones form the heel and back part of the foot
    tarsal bones
  202. what bones form part of the foot where the toes are attached
    metatarsals
  203. what bone froms the front part of the cranium and upper part of the eye sockets
    frontal bones
  204. what bone forms the bulging topsides of the cranium
    parietal
  205. what bone froms the lower sides of the cranium
    temporal
  206. what bone contains the middle and inner ear structures, mastoid sinuses, mastiod process, auditory canal and styloid process
    temporal
  207. what bone forms the back of the skull
    occipital
  208. what is the large hole that the spinal cord enters into the cranium called
    foramen magnum
  209. what bone forms the central part of the cranium
    sphenoid
  210. what part is the pituitary gland located in the sphenoid
    sell turcica
  211. what bone helps form the floor of the cranium, side walls, and roof of nose and part of middle parition
    ethmoid
  212. what makes up the nasal septum
    vomer and perpendicular plate
  213. what are they 2 ethmoid sinuses
    superior and middle concahae
  214. what are the samll bones that form the upper bridge of the nose
    nasal
  215. what are the upper jawbones that also hlep form the roof of the mouth, side walls of nose, floor of orbit
    maxilla
  216. what are the cheek bones called that help form the orbit
    zygomatic
  217. what are the lower jawbone that articulate with the temporal bone at the condyloid process
    mandible
  218. what is the small anterior hole for passage of nerves and vessels on the chin called
    mental foramen
  219. what are the small bones that help form the medial wall of the eye socket and side wall of the nasal cavity called
    lacrimal
  220. what are the bones that form the back part of the roof of the mouth and floor and side walls of nose and part of floor orbit
    palatine
  221. what are the bones that form the curved ledge along the insdie of side wall of nose
    inferior concha
  222. what bone forms the lower part of the nasal spetum
    vomer
  223. what bones are in the inner ear
    • malleus
    • incus
    • stapes
  224. what section of the spine is the upper seven vertebrae in the neck region
    cervical
  225. what section of the spine is the twelve vertebrae where the ribs attach
    thoracic
  226. what section of the spine is the vertebrae on the back and has 5
    lumbar vertebrae
  227. what section of the spine has 4 seperate vertebrae as a child and fused into one as an adult
    sacrum
  228. what section of the spine has 3-5 seperate vertebrae as a child and one as an adult
    coccyx
  229. what are the upper seven paris attached to the sternum called
    true ribs
  230. what are the lower five pair of bones that do not attach to the sternum called
    false ribs
  231. what bone is the breast bone
    sternum
  232. what is the lower end of the sternum called
    xiphoid process
  233. what is the protective tissue surrounding the joint called
    synovial capsule
  234. what encloses synovial fluid which lubricates, cushions, and is a nutient
    synovial capsule
  235. what are fulid filled sacs which reuce joint friction and function as shock absorbers
    bursa
  236. what deposists of adipose tissue near the joint which functions in protection
    fat pads
  237. what is the connective tissue that joins bones to other bones called
    ligaments
  238. what connects nuscles to bones
    tendons
  239. what are the 3 types of joints
    • synathrosis
    • amphiarthrosis
    • diathrosis
  240. what type of joint involves no movement
    synarthosis
  241. what are examples of synarthrosis articulation
    • bones of cranium
    • teeth and jaws
    • epiphyseal plates
  242. what type of joint involves little movement
    amphiarthrosis
  243. what are examples of amphiarthrosis articulation
    • tibia and fibula
    • left and right halves of pelvis
    • vertebrae
  244. what type of joint involves free movement
    diathrosis
  245. what are examples of diarthrosis articulation
    • elbow
    • ankles
    • knee
    • wrist
    • shoulder
    • hip
  246. what is it called when two  or more bones meet
    articulations
  247. what are the functions of synovial articulation
    • gliding/plane
    • pivot
    • saddle
    • hinge
    • ball and socket
  248. what function of synovial classification allows rotation movement only
    pivot
  249. what function of synovial articulations allows angular movement, like circumduciton but not rotation
    saddle
  250. what function of synovial articulations is twiddling your thumbs an example of
    saddle
  251. what function of synovial articulations allows angular movement in only one plan/direction
    hinge
  252. what function of synovial articulations are the elbow and knee an example of
     hinge
  253. what function of synovial articulations is where the round head of one bone artiucaltes with a depression in another allowing circumduction and rotation
    ball and socket
  254. what are the 2 hormones in the skeletal system
    • calcitonin
    • parathyroid
  255. what hormone is secreted by the thyroid gland
    calcitonin
  256. what hormone moves calcium from bone to the blood
    calcitonin
  257. what hormone is secreted by the parathyroid gland
    parathyroid
  258. what bhormone moves calcium from the blood to the bone
    parathyroid
  259. what disorder is the excessive loss of bone mass and bone volume called
    osteoporosis
  260. what disorder is the exceessive loss of bone mass but not bone volume
    ostemalacia
  261. what dieases of the skeletal system is abnormal remodeling of spongy bone by osteoclasts, deformation casuess dysfunction
    paget disease/ ostetits defromans
  262. what disease of the skeletal system is a bacterial infection of the bone
    osteomyelitis
  263. what disease of the bone is where the articular cartilage at the end of long bone degenerates
    osteoarthritis/ degenerative joint disease
  264. what skeletal disease is the inflammation of the synovial membrane called
    inflammatory joint disease- arthritis
  265. what are the 3 types of arthritis
    • rheumatoid
    • gouty
    • infectious
  266. what type of arthritis is autoimmune inflammation
    rheumatiod
  267. what type of arthritis is the inflammation due to the accumulation of sodium urate crystals, usually at a joint
    gouty
  268. what type of arthritis results from infrection of a pathogen
    infectious
  269. what disorder is the inflammation of the bursa sacs located around the joints for protection and can cause friciton and blunt trauma
    bursitis
  270. what disorder of the skeletal system is a tear of a ligament
    sprain
  271. what disorder of the skeletal system is a tear of a tendon/ muscle
    strain
  272. what disorder of the skeletal system is when bonesa are foreced out of their normal positions
    dislocation/ subluxation
  273. what disorder is when intervertebral cartilage shifts out of noraml alignemnt
    herniated/slipped disks
  274. what disorder of the skeletal system is the deformity of the hallus due to genetics or wearing shoes that are too tight
    bunions
  275. what disorder of the skeletal system is a dorsally exaggerated thoracic curvature- hunchback
    kyphosis
  276. what disorder of the skeletal system is a ventrally exaggerated lumber curvature- swayback
    lordosis
  277. what disorder of the skeletal system is the abnormal lateral curve of the spinal column, most commonly the thoraacic vertebrae
    scoliosis
  278. how are fractures classified
    • external appearance
    • site of fracture
    • nature of crack or break
  279. what type of fracture is conpletely internal and does not break through the skin
    closed or simple
  280. what type of fracture punctures the skin and can lead to infection or uncontrolled bleeding
    open or compound
  281. what type of fracture is a shattered bone into many parts
    comminuted
  282. what type of fracture occurs when only one side of shaft is broken and the other is bent becasue bone is not fully ossified
    greenstick
  283. what type of fracture is the break at the growth plate and can lead to uneven lenght
    epiphyseal
  284. what type of fracture is a break at the distal end of the radius
    colle's
  285. what type of fracture occurs at the ankle and can affect the distal tibia and/or fibula
    pott's
  286. what type of fracture is horizontal
    transverse
  287. what type of fracture is angled
    oblique
  288. what type of fracture is twisted
    spiraled

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