bones that form in soft organs. Os cordis (heart of bovine), Os rostri (nose of swine), os penis (penis of canine)
moveable, not connected. Shoulder, stifle.
Have articular surfaces on bones with articular cartilege covering, fluid-filled joint cavity enclosed by joint capsule.
sac-like structure that reduces friction between tissues.
Sits between skin-bone, muscle-bone, tendon-bone and ligament-bone joinings. Inside synovial capsule/membrane/fluid.
Between articular cartilege or wrapped all the way aroud tendon or muscle.
synovial joint capsule
outer layer is fibrous, inner layer is synovial membrane, producing synovial fluid, which lubricates and nourishes the joint surface. More exercise = more.
little or no movement, joined by fibrous connective tissue. Skull sutures, syndesmosis (interosseus ligament between radius and ulna in carnivores)
semi-mobile or not moveable. Jointed by fibrocartilege, hyaline or articular cartilege or both. Vertebrae, mandibular symphysis, pelvic symphysis, sternebra, synchondrosis (cartilaginous epiphyseal plate uniting diaphysis and epiphysis--immovible)
how joints are connected (Synovial, cartilaginous, fibrous)
Degree of joint mobility (diarthrosis, synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis)
how many bones are involved (simple, complex, compound)
fibrous implantation of tooth into alveoli of jaw bone (not a true joint)
Ligaments of stifle joint
lateral collateral (down side)
medial collateral (down side)
cranial cruciate (crossed in center)
caudal cruciate (crossed in center)
fibrous connective tissue connecting bone to bone
Intracapsular or extracapsular
Nocioception (pain) and proprioception (location, position)
stretch receptors; keep CNS informed about position of joints and tendons. Sense of where the body is.
Disc of hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage and fibrous tissue
allows greater variety of motion and alleviates concussions
Translation of a joint
movement that changes positions
Rotation of a joint
moving in a circle along axis
Pendular movement of a joint
flexion, extension, overextension
Swing of a joint
just what it sounds like?
decrease angle (bicep curl in)
increase angle (extend arm)
away from midline
Twisting on its own axis
Movement of distal end in a circle
"no" joint. synovial. Atlantoaxial
covex into concave. Flex/Ex. Synovial. Radiocarpal
os coxae, hip, femur, patella, stifle, tibia/fibula, hock (tarsal bones), Cannon and splint bones (metatarsus), Seasmoid bones, fetlock, long pastern, short pastern, coffin bone
Passive stay apparatus: carpus flexion
Lacertus fibrosus, Extensor carpi radialis. Also accessory ligaments (SDF, DDF, Accessory ligaments of SDF and DDF)
Passive stay apparatus: carpal hyperextension
block shape of carpal bones, palmar carpal ligament
suspensory apparatus. Extensor branch of the interosseus, suspensory ligament (interosseus). (also Distal sesamoidean ligaments, Accessory ligament of DDF), superficial digital flexor, deep digital flexor
Transfer tension in tendon to bone. Accessory ligament of SDF, accessory ligament of DDF
Passive stay apparatus: Pastern hyperextension
Palmar ligament, sesamoidean, flexor tendons
Passive stay apparatus: Pastern buckling
Double attachment of superficial digital flexor, on both sides of joint
Passive stay apparatus: Patella lock
Medial patellar ligament hooks over medial ridge of trochlea to prevent flexion of stifle. Also, 3 patellar tendons (dogs and cats have one). Medial patellar ligament, middle patellar ligament, lateral patellar ligament
reciprocal apparatus of the equine hind leg
2 tendonous cords that run from hock to stifle. Both joints must bend together. Superficial digital flexor (back), Peronius tertius (front). Patella lock fixes stifle, which fixes hock.