Intro and bones

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Intro and bones
2012-10-04 23:05:24
Anatomy Lecture

Anatomy lecture I, intro and bones
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  1. Anatomy
    form and structure of organisms.  "to cut apart".  Where things are and what they look like. 
  2. gross anatomy
    visible to the naked eye
  3. embryology
    developmental anatomy--conception to birth
  4. histology
    study of tissues
  5. comparative anatomy
    2 different animals with similar features
  6. living anatomy
    observation, palpation, oscultation, percussion, etc.
  7. topographic anatomy
    diving into areas
  8. imaging anatomy
    radiograph, ultrasound, CT MRI
  9. applied anatomy
    diagnosis and (surgical) treatment
  10. animalia
    eukaryotic, multicellular, ingest, mobile, sexual
  11. planae
    eukaryotic, multicellular, photosynthetic, nonmobile, sexual
  12. fungi
    eukaryotic, multicellular, absorption, nonmotile, sexual
  13. protista
    eukaryotic, uni- or mulitcellular, absorb, injest or photosynthesize, sexual and asexual
  14. monera
    prokaryotic, unicellular, absorb or photosynthesize, mobile or nonmotile, asexual
  15. 3 domains
    Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
  16. 5 functions associated with life
    • growth
    • metabolism
    • response to stimuli
    • adaptation to environment
    • reproduction
  17. simple squamous epithelium
    • thin, plate-like, lines body cavities and blood vessels
    • Flat cells, one thick
  18. taxonomy
    classification of living creatures.  Good for comparison and identification.  Easier to understand (more manageable pieces)
  19. List taxonomical classifications
    • (Domain)
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  20. 3 phylums
    • Arthropods
    • Mollusca
    • Chordata
  21. 5 kingdoms
    • Animalia
    • Protista
    • Plantae
    • Fungi
    • Monera
  22. Phylum Arthropoda
    exoskeletons, jointed limbs
  23. Phylum Mollusca
    Unsegmented, soft bodies, foot
  24. Phylum Chordata
    elongated bilaterally symmetric body, had/has notochord
  25. Subclass Theria, Eutheria
    Have a placenta.  Tigers. 
  26. Order Perissodactyla
    hooved animals with an odd number of digits (horses)
  27. Genus Leopardus
    spotted cats
  28. Genus Panthera
    Solid colored cats
  29. Genus lynx
  30. Felis Chaus
    Jungle cat
  31. Felis bietl
    mountain cat
  32. Felis Catus
    house cats
  33. Genus Felis
    small cats
  34. Order Lagomorphia
  35. Order Rodentia
  36. Order Carnivora
  37. Order Artiodactyla
    Hooved animals with an even number of digits
  38. Subclass Theria, Metatheria
    have a pouch.  Kangaroos
  39. Subclass Prototheria
    mammals that lay eggs.  Spiny anteater
  40. Family Ursidae
  41. Family Hyaenidae
  42. Family Felidae
  43. Family Canidae
  44. Notochord
    flexible rod-like structure that develops into spinal column in some animals
  45. Binomial nomenclature
    2-word naming system of Carolus von Linnaeus.
  46. pronation
    turning so that the dorsal is on top
  47. supination
    turning so that the ventral is on top
  48. cell
    functional unit of life
  49. tissue
    group of cells and materials, specialize for a common function
  50. organ
    tissues associated into functional groups
  51. system
    group of organs participating in common enterprise
  52. four types of tissue
    • connective
    • muscle
    • epithelial
    • nervous
  53. Nervous tissue
    transmits signals/impulses across body
  54. Muscle Tissue
    Movement and support.  3 types
  55. Connective tissue
    holds things together
  56. epithelial tissue
    covers body surfaces, glands, lines cavities and blood vessels
  57. Connective tissue
    Connect other tissues, give form and strength to organs and provide protection and leverage.  All have matrix, cells and fibers
  58. compact bone
    • type of specialized connective tissue.  (Lamina).  Layering of osteocytes (lacunae).  Hard matrix.  Skeleton.  Marrow.
    • layer of protective covering over cancellous bone.  Has osteons--osteocytes in lacunae
  59. cancellous bone
    • type of specialized connective tissue.  Tiny spicules of bone in random pattern.  Lighter, but strong.  Epiphysis, Marrow.
    • Spongy bone found in the epiphysis of long bones.  Has trabeculae (bony spicules).  Light but strong.
  60. 3 muscle types
    • Skeletal (striated).  fiber=1 cell
    • cardiac (striated), branched, single-nucleus
    • smooth (non-striated).  Spindle-shaped.  single nucleus.  Organs.
  61. Nervous tissue
    conducts electrical signals, stores information and evaluates data.  Transmits sensory information to spinal cord and brain
  62. Two types of bone
    • cancellous (spongy)
    • compact
  63. Simple cuboidal epithelium
    line glands and kidney.  Square cells one thick
  64. Simple columnar epithelium
    lines digestive tract.  Long thin cells, one thick. 
  65. Transitional epithelium
    stretchy, different kinds.  Bladder, urinary tract. 
  66. Stratified squamous epithelium
    thick, protective.  Outer skin.  Layers of plate-cells
  67. pseudostratified columnar
    looks like many layers but all touch the bottom.  Considered stratified.  Respiratory
  68. Stratified cuboidal
    thick, multiple layers of cube cells.  Pharynx and salivary ducts.
  69. glands
    epithelial cells that are specialized for secretion and excretion
  70. Osteoprogenitor
    pre- bone cell (pre-osteoblast)
  71. Endocrine gland
    ductless, secretes into the bloodstream (hormones--pituitary, thyroid, adrenal)
  72. exocrine gland
    has a duct.  Secretes onto a surface.  Urogenital, GI, respiratory
  73. serus
    liquid or mucus secretion of gland
  74. apocrine gland
    top of cell is lost in secretion
  75. merocrine gland
    cell lives on after excretion
  76. holocrine gland
    cell is completely destroyed during secretion
  77. acinar gland
    simple round duct
  78. complex gland
    duct = multiple pores with one opening. 
  79. tubular gland
    duct is long and thin
  80. tubular acinar gland
    duct = one long pore with a round sac at the bottom. 
  81. Areolar connective tissue
    loose connective tissue.  All fibers and loose matrix.  Under epithelial tissue, between things and around organs
  82. Adipose connective tissue
    Loose connective.  Fat.  Little matrix.  Found where protection is needed.  Kidneys
  83. Reticular connective tissue
    net-like loose connective.  Spleen, lymph nodes, bone. 
  84. dense regular connective tissue
    Parallel fibers, lots of collagen, few blood vessels.  Tendons and ligaments. 
  85. Dense irregular connective tissue
    fibers in different directions.  Not orderly.  Under dermis, organ capsules, GI tract
  86. Elastic connective tissue
    between vertebrae, heart, walls of arteries, large airways, stomach, bladder
  87. Hyaline cartilege
    AKA articular cartilege.  specialized connective tissue.  Lots of collagen--more rigid.  Articular surface of bones, nose, trachea, larynx, costal of ribs.  Has lacunae around chondrocytes.  Reduces articular friction. 
  88. Elastic cartilege.
    specialized connective tissue.  More flexible, has lacunae.  Pinnae, auditory tubes and epiglottis. 
  89. Fibrocartilege
    Specialized connective tissue.  More collagen in thicker bundles.  Pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs, discs in stifle, discs in temporomandibular joint
  90. blood
    specialized connective tissue.  Contains plasa, erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes.  Carry nutrients, gasses.  Fluid matrix. 
  91. skeletal muscle
    multinucleated striated.  Fiber = 1 cell.  voluntary.  Bicep. 
  92. Cardiac muscle
    striated, branched, single-nucleus.  Heart. 
  93. smooth muscle
    non-striated.  Spindle-shaped.  Single nucleus.  Organs. 
  94. dorsal body cavity
    brain and spinal cord
  95. ventral body cavity
    most soft organs.  Divided by thorax into thorax and abdomen
  96. visceral pleura
    lines the thoracic organs.  Balloon that organs push into. 
  97. Parietal pleura
    lines the thoracic cavity wall
  98. pleural cavity
    fluid inside of pleural sacs. 
  99. Pericardial cavity (sac)
    surrounds the heart
  100. pleural cavity (sac)
    surrounds the lungs
  101. visceral peritoneum
    lines organs like a pleura in the abdominopelvic cavity
  102. parietal peritoneum
    lines the abdominal wall. 
  103. peritoneal cavity
    potential space between parietal peritoneum and visceral peritoneum. 
  104. what living connective tissue is both organic and inorganic, can heal itself and is the second hardest substance in the body?
    • bone.  Organic: cells, collagen fibers and matrix
    • Inorganic: calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate
  105. Haversian canal
    blood vessel in bone. 
  106. Volkmann's channels
    bring blood from periosteum to the haversian canals
  107. lacunae
    "lakes' of bone around osteocytes
  108. Periosteum
    membrane covering outside of diaphysis and epiphysis where articular cartilege is absent.  Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts. 
  109. endosteum
    lines the marrow chamber.  Contains osteoclasts and osteoblasts
  110. 5 functions of bone
    • Support (muscular structure)
    • protection (organs)
    • leverage (allow muscles to move the body)
    • storage (stores minerals--is a depot organ)
    • blood formation (hematopoiseis)
  111. osteoblast
    mature cells that make bone
  112. osteocytes
    mature osteoblasts surrounded by matrix, trapped in lacunae.  Can revert back to osteoblast form to make bone
  113. osteoclasts
    destroy bone, give calcium to blood.
  114. canaliculi
    channels that allow cells to communicate
  115. Ossification
    when osteoblasts harden the matrix they laid down
  116. osteon
    Group of osteocytes in lacuna gathered around a haversian canal.  In Compact bone. 
  117. short bones
    carpal/tarsal.  Cube-shaped
  118. long bones
    longer than they are wide.  Limbs
  119. Flat bones
    two thin plates of compact bone with cancellous between.  Pelvis, scapula, skull
  120. irregular bones
    vertebrae, skull
  121. sesamoid bones
    • bone embedded in a tendon.  Found where a bone passes over a joint. 
    • Patella
  122. Visceral bone
    Os penis.  Bone found within a visceral organ. 
  123. Pneumatic bone
    • Bone with sinuses that communicate with the atmosphere.
    • Frontal and Maxillary
  124. metaphysis
    layer of hyaline cartilege between diaphysis and epiphysis where bones grow in length.  Cavity for marrow is in the middle
  125. apophysis
    where tubercle comes off bone
  126. Medullary cavity
    where marrow is made
  127. red bone marrow
    • hematopoeitic.  RBC, WBC, Platelets.  At birth all bone marrow is red.  As an adult only half is. Has blood vessels. 
    • primarily in flat bones: cranium, ribs, scapula
  128. yellow bone marrow
    fat.  Storage.  Half of adult bone marrow is yellow.  Has blood vessels.  Can become red if nessary.
  129. Facet
    articular projection.  Rocking motion--carpal/tarsal, vertebra, radius, ulna (side by side movement)
  130. Trochlea
    pulley-like articular projection.  A specialized condyle
  131. crest
    sharp ridgle, like sacrum
  132. pectoral girdle
    shoulder-apparatus.  Humans, birds have a complete one, cats/dogs do not. 
  133. axial skeleton
    skull, hyoid, spinal column, ribs, sternum
  134. appendicular skeleton
    pectoral and pelvic limbs, including pelvis
  135. skull
    37-38 bones.  United by sutures
  136. cranium
    portion of the skull that surrounds the brain.  11 bones, external and internal
  137. Parietal bones
    dorsal lateral wall of cranium.  Large in dog and cat, small in cow and horse
  138. external cranium
    • partly visible in surface of intact skull
    • frontal bones, interparietal bones, occipital bone, parietal bone, temporal bone
  139. internal bone of cranium
    hidden bones inside the intact skull.  Ethmoid, sphenoid
  140. Interparietal bones
    slivers on either side of saggital crest.  Very hard to see
  141. bones of the ear
    incus, malleus, stapes.  In temporal bones.  Covered by tympanic membrane (external auditory/acoustic  meatus)
  142. mesaticephalic
    middle-length nose (labrador)
  143. Ramus
    vertical part of the mandible with no teeth
  144. body of the mandible
    horizontal part with all the teeth
  145. pterygoid bones
    internal bones of the face.  Support pharynx
  146. Internal bones of the face
    Palatine, Pterygoid, Turbinates (4), Vomer
  147. External bones of the face
    Incisive, Lacrimal, Mandible, Maxillary bone, nasal bones, zygomatic bones
  148. Meatuses
    spaces in turbinates
  149. turbinates (concha)
    4.  Nasal conchae, usually thin, scrolled around each other.  Covered in mucus.  Helps warm and humidify air and trap particles.  Meatuses are the spaces between.
  150. nasomaxillary suture
    between nasal and maxillary bones
  151. internasal suture
    between nasal bones
  152. paracondylar process
    pterygoid-like structure behind tympanic bullae and mastoid process
  153. petrous temporal bone
    internal, visible in bisected skull.  Thick, dense bone containing structures of ear.  Behind sella turcica, just above tympanic bulla. 
  154. external acoustic meatus
    big hole in skull.  Tympanic membrane covers
  155. Concha
    turbinates.  Dorsal nasal and ventral nasal. 
  156. Sella Turcica
    where pituitary sits in skull.  Bisected skull, first dip behind cribiform plate
  157. Cornual process
    process of frontal bone of horned ruminants.  Encased in horn.  Frontal sinus grows into it, so dehorning only in the young !
  158. Temporal fossa
    depression on side of head
  159. Rostral bone
    only in pigs.  Tiny bone at front of nose.  For rooting. 
  160. Orbit species differences
    Complete in horse and cow, incomplete in dog and cat (completed by a ligament)
  161. Facial crest
    Ridge on side of a horse's face.  Zygomatic, but not open. 
  162. Paranasal sinuses
    air-filled cavities within bones that communicate with nasal sinuses.  Mucus-lined.  Small-ish in dog and cat, huge in horse, complex in cow (into horn)
  163. corunal diverticulum
    where the frontal sinus diverts into the horn of a cow
  164. hyoid apparatus
    attaches to temporal bone at the top and thyroid cartilege at the bottom
  165. Bones of the spine
    • 7 cervical (atlas, axis)
    • 13 thoracic (anticlinal) (13 pr ribs)
    • 7 lumbar
    • 3 sacral (fused)
    • various coccygeal
  166. intervertebral discs
    discs lie between bodies.  Convex cranially, concave caudally.  Ligaments hold together, rib ligaments help support
  167. intervertebral foramen
    hole between two vertebrae where they fit together, shown from the side
  168. sacroilliac joint
    helps connect pelvis limb to body (nothing similar in pectoral girdle)
  169. true ribs
    vertebrosternal ribs
  170. false ribs
    vertebrochondral ribs (3 in cat).  Hook to cartilege instead of actual sternum
  171. floating rib, vertebral rib
    one in a cat.  Connects to nothing
  172. thoracic limb canine
    scapula, humerus, ulna, radius, carpal bones, metacarpals, phalanges
  173. Brachium bones
    humerus, scapula
  174. Antebrachium bones
    Radius, Ulna, carpus, metacarpals, phalanges, seasmoid
  175. horse brachium bones
    scapula, humerus
  176. equine antebrachium bones
    ulna, radius FUSED, carpal bones, splint bones (#2 and #4), cannon bone (#3), proximal sesamoids (2), long pastern, short pastern, coffin bone, navicular bone (distal sesamoid)
  177. Scapular species differences
    • cat has suprahamate process
    • equine lacks acromion
    • equine and bovine have developed scapular cartilege
    • canine have subscapular fossa on the back
  178. Who has a clavicle?
    • cats (ossified, non articulating)
    • dogs (rudimentary)
  179. olecranon fossa
    hole for elbow in humerus.  Contains supertrochlear foramen in dog
  180. supertrochlear foramen
    hole in humerus in dog.  Like supercondyloid, but nothing goes through it. 
  181. Horse humerus
    has no hole, has intermediate tubercle
  182. trochlear notch
    big scoop out of ulna.  Radial notch is lateral part of coronoid process
  183. styloid process
    poky end of radius (medial).  Main weight-bearing bone of lower arm.  Articulates with carpus.
  184. carpal bones
    proximal row is named, distal row is numbered
  185. metacarpals
    • pig- 4 (2 useless)
    • Dog-4
    • Goat-2 (fused)
    • horse-1, 2 splint (3,4,5)
    • cow-2 fused (3,4)
  186. Ungual crest
    where nail comes off (P3)
  187. Pelvis bones
    Ilium, Ischium (caudal-most), Pubis (smallest)
  188. Tuber sacrale
    cranial medial part of ilium in a bovine and equine.  Wing is between tubers
  189. tuber coxae
    point of the hip in horse and cow.  Wing is between tubers.
  190. ischial tuberosity
    Pin bone in cattle.  Caudal-most pelvic bone.  Where they sit. 
  191. Objurator foramen
    large holes in the pelvis to lighten the bone.  No big blood vessels or nerves go through.
  192. equine femur
    has 3rd (intermediate) trochanter
  193. fibula
    Equine and Bovine don't have shaft.  Contains lateral malleolus. 
  194. Pelvic limb bones
    femur, patella, tibia, fibula (Tarsus, metatarsals, phalanges)
  195. Equine pelvic limb
    femur, patella, tibia, bits of fused fibula
  196. bones of tarsus/hock
    talus, calcaneus (lateral), central, numbered.
  197. Splanchnic skeleton
    bones that form in soft organs.  Os cordis (heart of bovine), Os rostri (nose of swine), os penis (penis of canine)
  198. synovial joint
    • moveable, not connected.  Shoulder, stifle. 
    • Have articular surfaces on bones with articular cartilege covering, fluid-filled joint cavity enclosed by joint capsule.
  199. Bursa
    • sac-like structure that reduces friction between tissues. 
    • Sits between skin-bone, muscle-bone, tendon-bone and ligament-bone joinings.  Inside synovial capsule/membrane/fluid. 
    • Between articular cartilege or wrapped all the way aroud tendon or muscle. 
  200. synovial joint capsule
    outer layer is fibrous, inner layer is synovial membrane, producing synovial fluid, which lubricates and nourishes the joint surface.  More exercise = more.
  201. fibrous joint
    little or no movement, joined by fibrous connective tissue.  Skull sutures, syndesmosis (interosseus ligament between radius and ulna in carnivores)
  202. cartilaginous joint
    semi-mobile or not moveable.  Jointed by fibrocartilege, hyaline or articular cartilege or both.  Vertebrae, mandibular symphysis, pelvic symphysis, sternebra, synchondrosis (cartilaginous epiphyseal plate uniting diaphysis and epiphysis--immovible)
  203. Structural classification
    how joints are connected (Synovial, cartilaginous, fibrous)
  204. Functional classification
    Degree of joint mobility (diarthrosis, synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis)
  205. Biomechanical classification
    how many bones are involved (simple, complex, compound)
  206. Gomphosis
    fibrous implantation of tooth into alveoli of jaw bone (not a true joint)
  207. Ligaments of stifle joint
    • lateral collateral (down side)
    • medial collateral (down side)
    • cranial cruciate (crossed in center)
    • caudal cruciate (crossed in center)
  208. Ligaments
    • fibrous connective tissue connecting bone to bone
    • Intracapsular or extracapsular
    • Nocioception (pain) and proprioception (location, position)
  209. nocioception
    pain receptors
  210. proprioception
    stretch receptors; keep CNS informed about position of joints and tendons.  Sense of where the body is. 
  211. Meniscus
    • Disc of hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage and fibrous tissue
    • allows greater variety of motion and alleviates concussions
  212. labrum
    fibrocartilaginous rim
  213. Translation of a joint
    movement that changes positions
  214. Rotation of a joint
    moving in a circle along axis
  215. Pendular movement of a joint
    flexion, extension, overextension
  216. Swing of a joint
    just what it sounds like?
  217. Flexion (synovial)
    decrease angle (bicep curl in)
  218. Extension (synovial)
    increase angle (extend arm)
  219. Adduction (synovial)
    toward midline
  220. Abduction (synovial)
    away from midline
  221. Rotation
    Twisting on its own axis
  222. Circumduction
    Movement of distal end in a circle
  223. Hinge joint
    synovial.  Elbow
  224. Pivot joint
    "no" joint.  synovial.  Atlantoaxial
  225. Condylar joint
    synovial.  Femorotibial
  226. Ellipsoid joint
    covex into concave.  Flex/Ex.  Synovial.  Radiocarpal
  227. Saddle joint
    flex/ex, ab/add.  2 saddles fitting together.  synovial.  Distal interphalangeal
  228. Ball and Socket (spheroid) joint
    universal movement.  Synovial.  Hip
  229. Plane joint
    gliding.  synovial.  Equine vertebral articular process, intercarpal.
  230. arthroscopy
    minimally invasive surgical procedure; examination of the interior of a joint using an arthroscope (type of endoscope)
  231. shoulder
    • glenohumeral/scapulohumeral joint
    • ball and socket
    • universal motion, chiefly flexion and extension
    • glenoid cavity
    • Intertubercular (bicipital) groove--bicep tendon.  Bursa or synovial membrane
  232. Elbow
    • humeroradioulnar
    • a hinge (ginglymus) synovial joint and also a compound joint (3+ articular surfaces)
    • humeral condyle (w/head of radius)
    • anconeal process of ulna (fits olecranon fossa)
    • collateral ligaments (flexion and extension)
    • ununited anconeal process, fragmented coronoid process (piece floating into joint)
  233. 3 joints of Carpus
    • antebrachiocarpal (synovial elliopoid, radius and ulna to carpal bones)
    • middle carpal joint (between two rows of carpals.  Small movement)
    • Carpometacarpal joint (distal row of carpal and metacarpal)
    • Intercarpal joint (between individual, side-to-side carpal bones)
  234. carpal varus
    bow legged.  Medial deviation of bones distal to carpus
  235. carpal valgus
    knock-kneed.  lateral deviation of the joints distal to carpus
  236. 3 digital joints
    • metacarpophalangeal joint (fetlock in a horse.  Modified hinge)
    • proximal joint
    • distal interphalangeal joint (saddle)
  237. onychectomy
    declawing removal of the distal phalange through the distl interphalangeal joint in cats. 
  238. Joints of the horse
    Hip, Stifle, Carpus/hock, fetlock, pastern, coffin
  239. Sacroiliac joint
    mostly immovable.  Cartilaginous and synovial.  Connects pelvis to axial skeleton.  Bony connection holding pelvic limb
  240. Sacrotuberous ligament
    Sacrum and first caudal vertebrae to ischium.  Connects to tubercle.  Absent in cat.  Horse and cow have sheet of tissue that forms the same function and completes the lateral wall of pelvis
  241. coxofemoral joint
    hip.  Ball and socket (spheroidal) synovial.  No collateral ligaments. 
  242. Luxating patella
    moving knee cap.  Medial or lateral.  Different grades of severity.  Grades 1, 2, 3. 
  243. TMJ
    condylar joint
  244. ossicles
    synovial joints
  245. Incus to malleus joint
  246. malleus to stapes joint
  247. stapes to vestibular window joint
  248. Mandibular symphyseal fracture
    comes from being hit by cars.  Stabilize the jaw and it will heal.  Wire around jaw. 
  249. tympanohyoid cartilege articulates with skull forming a:
    fibrous joint
  250. Hyoid and larynx make a ____________ joint
  251. Articular processes of the vertebrae make ___________ joints
  252. top of vertebrae articulate with each other making a ____________ joint
    synovial facet (plane)
  253. Atlantooccipital joint
    "Yes" joint--modified hinge
  254. atlantoaxial joint
    "No" joint--pivot.  Synovial
  255. Nuchal ligament of dog
    Stabilizes neck--cervical/atlas, occipital to thoracic spine.  Yellow elastic connective tissue.  Present in dog, absent in cat, sheet in cow and horse
  256. nuchal ligament of horse
    cervical/atlas/occipital to thoracic spine. Stabilizing ligament.  Split into two parts: funicular (cord) and lamellar (sheet).  Dogs have a ligament, cats have none. 
  257. Costovertebral joints
    • head of rib into vertebrae--synovial (ball and socket)
    • transverse process into tubercle of rib--synovial (plane)
  258. Sternocostal joint
    synovial--sternum to cartilege
  259. Intersternal joint
    Cartilaginous.  Sternebrae to sternebrae
  260. stifle
    condylar joint
  261. Newton's third law of motion
    animals must push something backwards to move (ground, fluid, gas, etc)
  262. 6 functions of feathers
    • Form of epidermis
    • streamlining,
    • trap air,
    • lighten animal,
    • protect thin skin from rain trauma and sunlight radiation
    • assist in thermoregulation and camouflage
    • communication behaviors like courtship, defense and recognition
  263. 6 kinds of feathers
    • tall
    • flight
    • semiplume
    • filoplume
    • bristle
    • downy
    • (Contour, Primary, Secondary)
  264. Molting
    process of feather replacement.  Occurs several times a year depending on species.  Usually symmetrical.  Some water fowl do itall at once.  Usually one or two primaries at a time. 
  265. Blood feather
    a developing feather that has pushed out the old one. 
  266. 3 Wing muscles
    • Pectorals (downstroke, sternum to humerus)
    • Supracoracoideus (upstroke, originate on sternum)
    • Extensor Carpi Radialis (Flexes elbow/extends wrist--like cat/dog)
  267. Bird skull
    thinner bones, keritinized bill, large eye sockets
  268. Bird vertebrae
    More cervical and caudal for a flexible neck and tail, fewer thoracic, lumbar and sacral.  Fused for stability. 
  269. Avian Pectoral girdle
    Complete.  Bone attaches.  3 bones.  Coracoid, Scapula, Clavicle (wishbone).  (Keel)
  270. Avian antebrachium
    ulna is larger in diameter where secondaries attach. 
  271. Alula
    1st finger--for steering.  Looks like a dewclaw
  272. Synsacrum
    Avian fused vertebrae and pelvis (sacrum, some coccygeal, some lumbar)
  273. Avian pelvic limb
    • short, wide femur
    • tibiotarsal (fibia small, splint)
    • tarsometatarsus
  274. Bird sternum
    Keel.  Large and concave.
  275. Bird flight adaptations
    • wing shape
    • Feathers
    • Torpedo-shaped for less drag
    • Fewer, pneumatic bones. 
    • lightweight beak instead of jaw
    • keel to attach flight muscles
    • muscular system
    • extra air sacs for lightness
  276. Feather parts
    Quill (calamus), Shaft (racis), vane
  277. white muscle fibers
    thick, low blood supply, little myoglobin, stores glycogen for muscle contraction.  Found in flight muscles of short distance fliers like chickens. 
  278. red muscles
    thinner, rich supply of blood, fat, myoglobin, mitochondria.  Long-distance flight muscles.  Waterbirds, songbirds, pigeons, birds of prey.  Dark meat.
  279. patagium
    web of skin that extends from shoulder to the wrist. 
  280. Avian respiratory system
    lungs small, air sacs throughout for lightness, warmth and moisture, lower center of gravity.  uni-directional, takes 2 inspirations and expirations to move one pocket of air. 
  281. bird brain
    no wrinkles, well-developed instinct-center, large optic lobe
  282. Passive stay apparatus: shoulder flexion
    biceps brachii tendon pulls to prevent joint flexion.  Serratus ventralis
  283. Serratus ventralis
    holds front of body like a swing between ribs and scapula
  284. Passive stay apparatus: elbow flexion
    collateral ligaments (inside ligaments), triceps brachii
  285. joints and bones of horse limb
    os coxae, hip, femur, patella, stifle, tibia/fibula, hock (tarsal bones), Cannon and splint bones (metatarsus), Seasmoid bones, fetlock, long pastern, short pastern, coffin bone
  286. Passive stay apparatus: carpus flexion
    Lacertus fibrosus, Extensor carpi radialis.  Also accessory ligaments (SDF, DDF, Accessory ligaments of SDF and DDF)
  287. Passive stay apparatus: carpal hyperextension
    block shape of carpal bones, palmar carpal ligament
  288. fetlock hyperextension
    • suspensory apparatus.  Extensor branch of the interosseus, suspensory ligament (interosseus).  (also Distal sesamoidean ligaments, Accessory ligament of DDF), superficial digital flexor, deep digital flexor
    • Transfer tension in tendon to bone.  Accessory ligament of SDF, accessory ligament of DDF
  289. Passive stay apparatus: Pastern hyperextension
    Palmar ligament, sesamoidean, flexor tendons
  290. Passive stay apparatus: Pastern buckling
    Double attachment of superficial digital flexor, on both sides of joint
  291. Passive stay apparatus: Patella lock
    Medial patellar ligament hooks over medial ridge of trochlea to prevent flexion of stifle.  Also, 3 patellar tendons (dogs and cats have one).  Medial patellar ligament, middle patellar ligament, lateral patellar ligament
  292. reciprocal apparatus of the equine hind leg
    2 tendonous cords that run from hock to stifle.  Both joints must bend together.  Superficial digital flexor (back), Peronius tertius (front).  Patella lock fixes stifle, which fixes hock. 
  293. Unguligrade
    horses.  Walk on distal phalange
  294. plantigrade
    humans.  Walk on metatarsals
  295. digitigrade
    dogs and cats.  Walk on phalanges.