How long is average stay of hospital visit for birth?
What type of thinking is random or memorized thoughts?
What type of thinking is purposeful, goal-directed thinking based on scientific evidence rather than assumption or memorization
When females are born
they have all the oocytes that will be available during her reproductive years
What would cause a c-section?
Immobile coccyx, history of pelvic fracture or rickets
If only one parent carries a dominant trait,
an average of 50% of the offspring will have and display the dominant trait
identical twins; same sex, develop from a single fertilized ovum; two embryos with own amnion, but common chorion and placenta; if disc does not divide, conjoined twins may form
fraternal; develop from two separate ova fertilized by two separate sperm; two amnions, two chorions, two placentas; tend to repeat in families
1. Determine the first day of last normal period 2. Count backwards three months 3. Add 7 days
Cardiovascular system in pregnant woman
growing uterus displaces heart upwards and to the left; blood volume increases to about 45% more to add blood for placenta, needs of expanded maternal tissue, reserve for blood loss at birth; should place pillow under right hip to help relieve compression
Not green leafy vegetables, not olive oil, not fried food; two to three servings per week of fish, egg yolk, red meat, poultry
Posture of pregnant woman
pelvic joints relax, waddling, instability, balance; DO NOT PICK BACK PAIN FOR ARCH
separate planning classes; denial until late in pregnancy; financial problems, relationship problems, low self esteem;
Three types of placenta previa
marginal-within 2-3 cm of cervical opening; partial-partially covers cervical opening; total-completely covers cervical opening; painless vaginal bleeding; risks are infection or hemorrhage; have woman lie on side or pillow under one hip; vitals every 15 minutes, blood loss, give O2; no vaginal exam unless baby is ready to come-will prepare for vaginal and c-section birth
If mother is diabetic, what happens to baby?
ONLY ONE ANSWER-hypoglycemia, respiratory distress, injury caused by macrosomia (big baby); growth restriction because placenta functions poorly
Rubella effect on fetus
microcephaly, mental retardation, congenital cataracts, deafness, cardiac defects, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); woman should not get pregnant for one month after immunization; not given during pregnancy since it�s a live virus
Report to the nurse any contractions�
that occur more frequently than 2 minutes, last longer than 90 seconds, or have intervals shorter than 90 seconds---these may reduce fetal oxygen supply
Three phases of contractions
increment, peak, decrement
minus above ischial spine, 0 at ischial spine, plus below spine
The woman should go to the hospital when the contractions
have a pattern of increasingly frequency, duration and intensity; first child-woman goes when contractions have been regular every five minutes for 1 hour; more kids, 10 minutes apart for one hour
When should mother go to hospital?
Contractions, if she thinks her membranes have ruptured, bleeding other than bloody show (blood+mucus); decreased fetal movement, any other concers
Patterned paced breathing
constant pattern and stairstep pattern
Childbirth pain vs. other pain
childbirth pain is part of normal birthing process, woman has several months to prepare, self-limiting and declines after birth
How can pain be beneficial
cause woman to feel vulnerable and seek shelter and help from others; motivates her to assume different body positions which can help descent of fetus
Why check BP after epidural block?
Check every 5 minutes after block is begun and after each reinjection until stable; record fetal heart rate-this and O2 can decrease in baby; full bladder may necessitate catheterization
Adverse effects of epidural block
maternal hypotension (counteracted by 500-1000 ml of Ringer�s solution is infused rapidly before block is begun) and urinary retention (palpate suprapubic area area for a full bladder at least every two hours)
What is nursing care of precipitous birth?
Help with breathing and cold applications
Umbilical cord prolapse
1. Gloved hand pushes fetus upward and off the cord 2. Knee chest uses gravity to shift fetus off pelvis-thighs at right angles to bed with flat chest 3. Hips elevated with two pillows combined with trendelenburg�s position
How would you massage fundus?
Walk fingers from side to midline; if fundus is firm and at expected level, no massage is necessary
What do you do with boggy uterus?
Massage until firm but do not overmassage and then empty bladder
DVT-dorsiflex the calf
When is the best time to do breast exam?
1 week after beginning of menstrual period
Drug interactions with oral contraceptives
these decrease effectiveness: some antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline), anticonvulsants, rifampin, barbiturates
induces ovulation; may be used with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); increases risk of multifetal gestations
What food helps osteoporosis?
Dairy, dark green leafy vegetables, soybean, wheat bread and calcium supplements
avoid caffeine (contribute to insomnia and perspiration), stress worsens hot flashes, stress exacerbates symptoms, hormone replacement, vit E, ginseng other herbs
loud noise will cause infant to symmetrically extend and abduct the arms and then adduct in a hug motion; thumb and index in �c�; one sided may mean fractured clavicle; absence pathological condition of CNS
head falls back when infant is lifted from bed
head turned to one side, arm and leg extended on same side, opposite arm and leg flexed
infant�s head turns in the direction of anything that touches the check
stroke the side of the foot; big toe dorsiflexes and toes will flare out
Respiratory distress of newborn
rate and character of respirations, cyanosis, and general behavior. Sternal retractions are reported immediately
Regarding birth weight, 3-4 days after birth
infant loses about 5-10% of weight; 15% for preterm infants; regain birth weight by 10 days of age
Noninvasive ways of pain relief for infants
swaddling with hand near the mouth, cuddling, rocking, nonnutritive suckling, quiet environment