Real exam 1
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. What would you like to do?
All living things must have what characteristics?
What is the orfer of the Biological Hiearchy? (smallest to largest)
- Organ systems
What is an organelle?
A structurewithin a cell that performs a special function.
What is a cell?
A cell is the simplest entity that has the properties of life.
What is a Tissue?
A group of similar cells that carry out a function.
What is a Organ?
A structure consiting of tissues.
what about a organ system?
that is two or more organs, a group of body parts that carry out functions.
Am I an organism?
An organism is an individual that can independly carry out life.
What is a population?
Groups of similar individuals. (mice)
Is groups of all different species and organisms living in a particular area.
Communities and their physical enviorments
A large region defined by distinctive characteristics.
All ecosytems on the earth
Studies the relationship between living organisms and their enviorments.
what can Energy be used for?
- Can be used to consue plants or animals
- for Photosythesis
- To convert sunlight to chemical energy & surgars
- also to grow and develop.
Self- Propelled Movement
What do Single-Celled organisms do?
They produce 2 genetically identical cells (asexual)
What do Multi-celler organisms do?
- They have many ways....
- Eggs, Sperms...
What is DNA real name?
DE-OXY-RIBO-NUCLEIC ACID :)
WHAT IS A GENE? not Jeans lol
The basic unit of inheritance that transmits heredity info to a mom to a kid.
It is the part of the DNA molecule in a chromosome that encodes a RNA molecule...cool!
What are the 4 types of molecules?
- Nucleic Acids
What is heredity?
Factors that control an organisms form & function. (genes)
What is evolution?
A change or variation in the genes of a population over time.
What is the Genus?
- It always comes 1st then the species name!
- The genus contains several related & similar species!
What is the order of the Classification Scheme? (largest to smallest)
- Domains (largest)
- Phyla (divisons)
- Species (smallest)
What does the Bacteria domain contain?
It contains Prokaryotic Species (bacteria)
What does the Domain Archaea contain?
It contains Prokaryotic species that inhabit harsh enviorments.
What does the Domain Eukarya contain?
- It contains larger more complex eukaryotic cells.
- Which contains the 4 kingdoms
What are the 4 kingdoms?
- The 4 kingdoms are:
Charles Darwin who?
He created the " on the orgin of species" book in 1859
What arises from natural selection?
What are the steps in the scientifc Method?
- Identify the problem
- Make prediction
What roles do Bacteria and Archea play?
- Major enviormental role
- Recycle Carbon and nitrogen
- They consume dead and decaying matter, pesticides and pollutants
- Bioremediatiopn (clean up oil spills)
Prokaryotes have a positive and negative impact such as...
- Causes diseases
- Bacteria inhabitant of human gut, produce vitamin K, B12, riboflavin,biotin.
- Help in digestion of cellouse
- help in production of chemical compounds (butanol, frutose and lysine)
- Help in production of cheese yogurt and soy sauce
Prokaryotes cell structure is?
Archaea do not contain true peptiodoglycans
- Simple, lacks a nuclear envelope and organelles
- loose circular dna
- cell wall is made up of peptidoglycans
What are peptidoglycans?
They are sugar protein complexces that make up a cell wall.
Gram positive (purple)
Has a thick Peptidoglycan layer
Penicillin type antibiotics kill gram +
Gram negative (pink)
Has a thin peptidoglycan layer surrounded by lipoplysaccharides.
Erythromycin-type antibiotics kill gram -
What is Gram staining?
- A process to determine two diffrent types of prokaryotes.
- This identification process helps in the selection of antibiotics.
What are the 3 forms of Prokarotes?
- Coccus (cocci) = Spheres
- Bacillus (bacilli) = Rods
- Spirilla = spirals
- Vibrios = comma shaped rods
Obtain organic nutrients from the envioroment.
- Live off dead or dying organisms
- Live in other organisms
- some are parasites and can harm their host, some are neutral
- E. coli
Can make their own nutrition from inorganic sources.
- Use light sources to make energy
- Which are cyanobacteria - blue green alge that are oxygen- generating and nitrogen fixing also phtosynthetic.
- Use chemicals to make energy
- Sulfur bacteria and methane bacteria
How do prokaryotes reproduce?
Binary fission and endospores
What is Binary Fission?
- Divide in half
- Fast and efficent
- Reproduction is limited by food, oxygen, and other resource avaliabilty
- Ecoli divides every 20 mins
- Can survive a variety of conditions
- Develop under enviormental strees
What is conjugation?
Direct exchange of Dna through a strand of cytoplasm that bridges two cells.
What is transduction?
Transfer of genes from one bacteria to another via a virus
What is transformation?
Transfer of genes by the uptake of dna directly from meduim.
What is Genetic recombination?
It can give prokaryotes means to survive under changing enviorments. Adaption.
What is the Domain Archea?
- Most are Anaerobes
What are Extremophiles?
- They can live in hostile enviorments like:
- near boiling water
- Salty lakes
- highly acidic or alkaline water and soil
What are methanogens?
- They produce methane gas
- and live in a cow digestive tract
Archea has 3 Main kingdoms! what are they?
live organism is yet to be found, only dna has been found
Thermophiles- use sulfur as electron aceptor in their energy metabolism.
- methane producers
- Halophiles (salt loving)
The bacteria Domain has how many kingdoms?
primitive bacteria is...
- are species that are close to very early life forms.
Extremophiles- they survive in the most extreme conditions ....duh!
live in boiling conditions
resistant to irridation
gram positive bacteria
- cause many infections.
- bacillus thuringiensis
produce more than 500 antibiotics
lack cell walls, walking pneumonia
may help control malaria in the future
most common std in america
- blue green algea
- provides oxygen and nitrogen and carbon to the enviorment
- purple bacteria- gave rise to mitochodria
- e coli
- Rickettsias- causes typhhus fever and rocky mountain fever
non living, a very tiny package of dna surrounded by a capsid. the capsid then attach to a cell wall or membrane, it enters the host cell or injects its dna, which interrupts cellular activity in host cell. then it reproduce in the host cell whic causes it to die or burst, which release viruses into the body.
which medicene can kind of slow a virus?
what are viriods?
they are parasites living in plant cells which bind to rna in the host cells ribosomes, disrupts protien sythesis.
What are prions?
- infectious proteins which have no genetic makeup
- Extremly rare, fatal dieses of central nervous system in cows lol
what is a protist?
- they are single celled eukaryotes, which carry the malaria parasite,
- they do not
- develop embryos
- have extensive cell differation
- Are not animals, plants or fungi
- ancient protistan
- muticellular protistian
- complex protistain
- oldest disease
- greatest killer
- major hosty of plasmodium falciparum
- anopheles mosquito
euglena has a stigma which directs it toward light to carry out photosythesis
- live in the guts of termites which enables them to digest wood.
- they have their own bacteria which can breakdown cellulose into sugar
What would you like to do?
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