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exerted the most powerful external influence on the Romans. Their civiization arose in Etruia.
right held by a Roman king to enforce commands by fines, arrests, and corporal and capital punishment.
commoner class of Roman families, usually families of small farmers, laboreres, and artisans who were early clients of the patricians.
Roman Republic (509 B.C.)
the outrageous behavior of the last kings led the noble families to revolt in 509 B.C., bringing the monarchy to a sudden close and leading to the creation of this.
elected magistrates from patrician families chosen annually to lead the army, overseee the state religion, and sit as judges.
men of unimpeachable reputation, chosen to carry the responsiblity for enrolling, keeping track of, and determining the status and tax liablity of each citizen.
gained control of the state's finances and of foreign policy; had great influence.
The Struggle of the Orders
The plebeians vs the patricians
officials elected by the plebeian tribal assembly given the power to protect plebeians from abuse by patrician magistrates.
Laws of the Twelve Tables
the foundation of Roman law. (early Roman custom in all its harshness and simplicity are codified)
Assembly against patrician’s resistance built at the Sacred Mount.
In 387 B.C, Gauls (barbaric Celtic) defeated Roman army and burned Rome. In 350 B.C, Gallic raids again however, they defended
Latins, Samnites, Greeks
- in 295 B.C., Roman defeated Samnites at
- Sentinum. And in 275 B.C., Roman defeat Greeks at the
- Sicily- Roman united Italy.
- King of Eprirus: “If we win one more the battle against
- Rome”.. won against Rome, but cost a lot.
- Rome vs Carthage
- First Punic Wars (264-241 B.C)
- Rome took Sardinia and Corsica
- Second Punic War (218 BC- 202 BC)
- Hannibal almost won but Scipio finally gave victory to The Rome.
the General of the Carthage marched to Rome by crossing Alps and defeat Rome in the Battle of Cannae.
Battle of Cannae
Hannibal defeated the Romans with 80,000 soldiers; the worst defeat in Roman History
a young general of Rome and won at the Battle of Zama
Battle of Zama
In 202 B.C., the battle between Hannibal and Scipio, which decided the winner of the Punic War.