Chemistry I Exam I Study Guide

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Chemistry I Exam I Study Guide
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Chemistry I Exam I Study Guide
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  1. Atom
    The basic structural unit of an element

    the smallest portion of an element that retains all the properties of that element

    Made up of 2 general areas
  2. Atomic number
    Element Number
    • The number of protons in the nucleas of an atom
    • or
    • The number of electrons in the shells of an uncombined atom
  3. Atomic symbol
    Abbreviated expresion for an element
  4. Atomic weight
    The weight of a given atom

    the sum of the weights of the electrons, protons, neutrons
  5. Chemistry
    the study of matter and tne changes it undergoes
  6. Inorganic chemistry(3)
    chemistry of all that is not organic

    • study of the elements and thier reactions
    •   -metals and non-metals

    things that do not contain carbon
  7. Organic chemistry(2)
    chemistry of carbon and carbon containing compounds

    chemistry of those things derived from living or once-living things
  8. Biochemistry(2)
    Biological chemistry(2)
    Physiological chemistry(2)
    the branch of chemestry dealing with compounds produced by living organisms

    involves all the living processes in health & disease
  9. Embalming chemistry
    chemistry of the chemical processes involving dead organic substances in terms of decomposition, disinfection, and preservation
  10. Thanatochemistry
    the study of those physical and chemical changes in the human body that are caused by the process of death
  11. Mass
    a measure of the quantity of matter a body contains
  12. Weight
    a measure of the gravitational attraction of the earth for the body
  13. Heat
    • the energy that causes there to be changes in matter
    •   - measured in calories
  14. Calorie
    amount of heat necessary to raise the temp of one gram of water one degree C
  15. Temperature
    measures the intensity of heat
  16. Energy
    the ability or capacity to do work
  17. Potential energy
    stored energy
  18. Kinetic energy
    the energy of motion
  19. Chemical energy
    energy associated with chemical reactions
  20. Endothermic reaction
    absorbs heat (feels cool)
  21. Exothermic reaction
    releases heat (feels hot)
  22. Matter
    anything that occupies space and possesses mass
  23. Properties of matter
    the signs/characteristics that serve to identify substances
  24. Physical properties(2)
    those characteristics of a substance as it exists in nature

    properties that can change without involving a change in chemical composition
  25. Density
    mass/volume = density

    things that are heavy tend to be more dense
  26. Viscosity
    resistance to flow

    blood is more viscuse than water

    affects boiling and freezing points
  27. Chemical properties(4)
    the characteristics that are observed only when the substance is interacting with other substances

    tthereby changing the composition of the substance

    how it reacts with oxygen, water, acids, bases

    it's reactivity
  28. Melting
    property of solid matter
    changing states from solid to liquid
  29. Sublimation
    property of solid matter
    • changing states from solid to gas
    •    skips the liquid state
  30. Surface tension
    property of liquid matter
    the attraction of the molecules for each other at the surface of a liquid
  31. Diffusion
    property of liquid matter
    the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
  32. Freezing
    property of liquid matter
    a change of state of matter from a liquid to a solid by the loss of heat
  33. Solidification
    property of liquid matter
    the ability of a liquid or a gas to become firm and compact into a solid
  34. Boiling
    property of liquid matter
    the rapid passage of liquid particles to the vapor state by forming bubbles through the action of heat
  35. Vaporization
    property of liquid and gas matter
    the physical change from a liquid to a gas
  36. Crystallization
    property of liquid matter
    the process by which a substance is given definite form
  37. Volatility
    property of liquid matter
    having the quality of being easily converted at a relatively low temperature from the liquid to the gaseous state
  38. Condensation
    property of gas matter
    a change in state of matter from a gas to a liquid
  39. Liquefaction
    property of liquid matter
    conversion of a solid or gas into a liquid
  40. the state of matter is dependent upon?
    Temperature and Pressure
  41. Give a thorough explanation of what happens when there is a
    physical change.  Do the same for a
    chemical change.

    Physical changes
    changes in the condition or state of a substance

    • only changing the physical characteristics
    •    do not form new subsances or change the composition

    • boiling water
    • freezing water
    • breaking glass
    • melting ice
  42. Give a thorough explanation of what happens when there is a
    physical change.  Do the same for a
    chemical change.

    Chemical changes
    • changes that result in the formation of new substances
    •   occur only when a chemcal reaction takes place
    •   change the composition of the original substance
    •   lead to new chemical and physical properties

    • decomposition
    • digestion of food
    • rusting of a nail
    • burning wood
    • cremation
    • preservation of remains
  43. Elements(2)
    the basic units of all matter

    the building blocks
  44. Al
    aluminum
  45. Br
    bromine
  46. Ca
    calcium
  47. C
    carbon
  48. Cl
    chlorine
  49. Cu
    copper
  50. H
    hydrogen
  51. I
    iodine
  52. Fe
    iron
  53. Mg
    magnesium
  54. Hg
    mercury
  55. N
    nitrogen
  56. O
    oxygen
  57. P
    phosphorus
  58. Pt
    platinum
  59. Na
    sodium
  60. S
    sulfur
  61. Compounds

    Give the examples of compounds.
    substances composed of two or more elements combined chemically in definite proportions by weight

    cannot be seperated by physical means - only chemicallly

    have booth chemical and physical properties different from the constituent elements

    • NaCl - table salt
    • CO2 - carbon dioxide
    • H2O - water
    • HCHO - formaldehyde
  62. Mixtures
    a combination of two or more substances not chemically united and not in definite proportion by mass

    may be separated by physical means

    embalming fluid is a mixture

    • blood
    • air
    • milk
    • salt water
  63. Nucleus of an atom
    a very dense, small, positively-charged center of an atom that contains most of the atom in the form of protons and neutrons

    a solid core
  64. Orbits or Shells of an atom
    the area outside the nucleus where the electrons are found
  65. Protons
    positively charged particles found in the nucleus of an atom

    mass of 1 amu

    charge of +1
  66. Neutrons
    uncharges particles found in the nucleus of an atom

    mass of 1 amu

    no charge (neutral)
  67. Electrons
    negatively charged particles found in the shells of orbits surrounding the nucleus

    • mass of 1/1837 amu
    •   we will consider it to be 0

    has a charge of -1
  68. Electronic configuration
    electrons are always found arranged in a particular order around the nucleus of an atom
  69. Valence electrons
    electrons found by the outermost shell of an atom
  70. Inert
    will not react
  71. A measure of the gravitational attraction of the earth for a body is
    weight
  72. A measure of the quantity of matter that a body contains is
    mass
  73. Approximately how many elements are naturally occurring?
    about 90
  74. Can elements be broken down chemically?
    no
  75. Describe the atomic symbol in more detail than above and
    explain how it is derived.
    "chemical shorthand"

    • usually an abbreviation of their names
    •    generally symbols are taken from the first letter of the name
    •    others must have two letters to sidtinguish them
    •       Carbon (C) and Chlorine (Cl)
    •    1st letter always capitalized
    •    2nd letter always lower case

    •   some are taken from their Latin names
    •     Fe for Iron; latin - ferrum
    •     K for potassium; latin - kalium
  76. Do a thorough description of each of the States of Matter.-
    be sure to include the properties and a description of each.
    • Solids
    •     have a definite shape and volume
    •    do not flow
    •    particles are packed tightly together in an organized fashion

    • Liquids
    •    have no definite shape but do have a definite volume
    •    a substance that flows readily
    •    particles are farther apart than in solids

    • Gases
    •    have no definite shape or volume
    •    will always fill their container
  77. Viscosity
    property of liquid matter
    resistanve to flow
  78. Do compounds have all the exact same physical and chemical properties of the elements that make them up?
    no
  79. Elements are made up of very small units of matter called
    Atoms
  80. Give the physical properties of metals.
    conduct heat and electricity

    have luster

    some are ductile

    some are malleable

    • most are solids
    • exhibit a positive electrical charge
  81. Give the physical properties of the non-metals.
    not good conductors

    usualy brittle

    not malleable

    not ductile

    some are solids, some are liquids, some are gases

    exhibit a negative electrical charge
  82. Group VII of the periodic table of the elements is known as
    halogens

    salt-formers
  83. Group VIII of the periodic table is known as
    inert gases

    noble gases
  84. How are the elements arranged horizontally on the periodic
    table?
    in order of increasing atomic number
  85. How are the elements arranged vertically on the periodic
    table?
    according to their similar chemical properties

      groups or families
  86. How can the components of compounds be separated from one another?
    chemically
  87. How can the components of mixtures be separated from one another?
    physical means
  88. How is heat measured?
    in calories
  89. In order to change the composition of a substance, what must occur?
  90. In what state of matter will you find the particles of the substance packed tightly together in an orderly fashion?
    solid
  91.  Liquids have a property that is caused by the attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other. 
    This attraction causes the phenomenon of
    Surface tension
  92. List ALL the examples of mixtures.
    • blood
    • air
    • milk
    • salt water
  93. List out the decimal system prefixes.
    • giga -      billion
    • mega -    million
    • kilo -       thousand
    • hecto -    hundred
    • deka -     ten

    • deci -      tenth
    • centi -     hundredth
    • milli -      thousandth
    • micro -   millionth
    • nano -    billionth
  94. Should all letters contained in an atomic symbol be capitalized?
    no, just the first letter
  95. The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius is
    calorie
  96. The arrangement of the electrons around the nucleus of an atom is called
    electronic configuration
  97. The basic structural unit of an element is the
    atom
  98. The electrons in the outermost shell are called
    valence electrons
  99. The electrons responsible for the physical and chemical properties of an element are
    valence electrons
  100. The energy that causes there to be changes in matter is
    heat
  101. The kilogram is the metric system basic unit of
    mass & weight
  102. The liter is the metric system basic unit of
    volume
  103. The mass of a substance divided by its volume will give its
    density
  104. The meter is the metric system basic unit of
    length
  105. The number of valence electrons is equal to what of the periodic table?
    groups or families
  106. The number of valence electrons will tell us what?
    chemical properties
  107. The periodic table of the elements arranges the elements in vertical columns according to similar chemical properties,  what are these columns called? (2 names)
    groups or families
  108. The smallest portion of an element that retains all the properties
    of that element is
    atom
  109. The state of matter that does not have a definite shape but does have a definite volume is a
    liquid
  110. The state of matter that has a definite shape and volume is a
    solid
  111. The state of matter that has no definite shape or volume is
    gas
  112. The state of matter that will always fill its' container is a
    gas
  113. The term "inert" means
    will not react
  114. Those characteristics of a substance as it exists in nature are the
    physical properties
  115. Those elements whose atoms have eight valence electrons or a full outermost shell are the most stable. 
    These elements are known as the ____________.
    noble gases or inert
  116. To avoid writing out the entire name of an element every time it is used, chemists developed a "chemical shorthand" that assigned each element what?
    atomic symbol
  117. What are the three compositional forms of matter?
    • elements
    • compounds
    • mixtures
  118. What determines the atomic number of an element?
    the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

    or

    the number of electrons in the shell of an uncombined atom
  119. What determines the state that matter is in?
    temperature and pressure
  120. What group contains the "non-reactive" elements?
    • group 8
    • noble gases
  121. What is an example of sublimation?
    dry ice
  122. What is responsible for the chemical properties and many of
    the physical properties of an element?
    valence electrons
  123. What is the definition of atomic weight?
    the sum of the weights of the electrons, protons, neutrons
  124. What is the laboratory basic unit of weight measurement?
    gram
  125. What is the maximum number of electrons that can be found in the OUTERMOST shell?
    8
  126. What is the name of Group I elements in the periodic table?
    alkalis
  127. What is the one chemical property we listed?
    reactivity
  128. What is the SPECIFIC subatomic particle that will actually combine with those of other atoms to form compounds?
    valence electron
  129. What subatomic particles are found in the nucleus of an atom? (2 answers)
    • proton
    • neutron
  130. What subatomic particles are negatively charged?
    electron
  131. What subatomic particles are positively charged?
    proton
  132. What was developed to attempt to group the elements according to similar properties and types of reactions?
    periodic table of elements
  133. Where are electrons located?
    orbits or shells surrounding the nuclleus
  134. Where are the non-metals found in the periodic table?

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