Quiz 2: Research Methods
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Operational definition
A definition of a variable in terms of the operations (activities) a researcher uses to measure or manipulate it.

Identity
A property of meausrement in which objects that are different receive different scores.

Magnitude
A property of measurement in which the ordering of numbers reflects the ordering of the variable.

Equal unit size
A property of measurement in which a difference of 1 is the same amount thoughout the entire scale.

Independent variable
Manipulated variable.

Dependent variable
Measured variable

Absolute zero
A property of measurement in which assigning a score of zero indicates an absence of the variabe being measured.

Nominal scale
A scale in which objects or individuals are assigned to categories that have no numerical properties.

Ordinal scale
A scale in which objects or individuas are categorized, and the categoreis form a rank order along a continuum.

Interval scale
A scale in which the units of measurement (intervals) between the numbers on the scale are all equal in size.

Ratio scale
A scale in which, in addition to order and equal units of measurement, an absolute zero indicates an absence of the variable being measured.

Nominal Scale
 Examples: Ethnicity, religion, sex.
 Properties: identity.
 Mathematical operations: None.

Ordinal Scale
 Examples: class rank, letter grade.
 Properties: Identity, magnitude.
 Mathematical operations: rank order.

Interval scale
 Examples: temperature, psych tests.
 Properties: Identity, magnitude, equal unit size.
 Mathematical operations: add, subtract, multiply, divide.

Ratio scale
 Examples: Weight, height, time.
 Properties: identity, magnitude, equal unit size, absolute zero.
 Mathematical operations: add, subtract, multiply, divide.

Discrete variables
Variables that usually consist of whole number units or categories and are made up of chunks or units that are detached and distinct from one another.

Continuous variables
Variables that sually fall along a continuum and allw for fractional amounts.

Selfreport measures
Usually questionnaires or interviews that measure how people report that they act, think or feel.

Test
A measurement instrument used to assess individual differences in various content areas.

Behavioral measures
Measures taken by carefully observing and recording behavior.

Reactivity
A possible reaction by participants in which they act unnaturally because they know they are being observed.

Physical measures
Measures of bodily activity (such as pulse or blood pressure) that may be taken with a piece of equipment.

Reliability
An indication of the consistency or stability of a measuring instrument.

Correlation Coefficient
A measure of the degree of relationship between two sets of scores. It can vary between 1.00 and +1.00

Positive correlation
A direct relationship between two variables in which an increase in one is related to an increase in the other, and a decrease in one is related to a decrease in the other.

Negative correlation
An inverse relationship between two variables in which an increase in one variable is related to a decrease in the other and vice versa.

Test/retet reliability
A reliability coefficient determined by assessing the degree of relationship between scores on the same test administered on two different occassions.

Alternateforms reliability
A reliability coefficient determined by assessing th degree of relationship between scores on two equivalent tests.

Splithalf reliability
A reliability coefficient determined by correlating scoes on one half of a measure with scoes on teh other half of the measure.

Interrater reliability
A reliability coefficient that assesses the agreement of observations made by to or more raters or judges.

Validity
A measure of the truthfulness of a measuring nstrument. It indicates measures what it claims to measure.

Content validity
The extent to which a measuring instrument covers a representative sample of the domain of behaviors to be measured.

Face validity
The extent to which a measuring instrument appears valid on its surface.

Criterion validity
The wxtent to which a measuring instrument acurately predicts a behavior or ability in a given area.

Construct validity
The degree to which a measuring instrument accurately measures a theoretical construct or trait taht it is designed to measure.

A definition of a variable in terms of the activities a researcher used to measure or manipulate it is an ___.
operational definition

___ is a property of measurement in which the ordering of numbers reflects the ordering of the variable.
Magnitude

A(n) ___ scale is a scale in which objects or individuals are broken into categories that have no numerical properties.
nominal

A(n) ___ scale is a scale in which the units of measurement between the numbers on the scale are all equal in size.
interval

Questionnaires or interviews that measure how people report that they act, think or feel are ___.
selfreport measures

___ occurs when participants act unnaturally because they know they are being observed.
Reactivity

When reliability is assessed by determining the degree of relationship between scores on the same test, administered on two different occasions, __ is being used.
test/retest reliability.

___ produces a reliability coefficient that assesses the agreement of obervations made by two or more raters or judges.
Interrater reliability

____ assesses the extent to which a measuring instrument covers a representative sample of the domain of behaviors to be measured.
Content validity

The degree to which a measuring instrument accurately measure a theoretic construct or trait that it is designed to measure is assessed by __.
construct variability

Gender is to the __ property of measurement and time is to the ___ property of measurement.
identity; absolute zero

Arranging a group of individuals from heaviest to lightest represents the ___ property of measurement.
magnitude

The letter grade on a test is to the __ scale of measurement and height is to the ___ scale of measurement.
ordinal; ratio

Weight is to the __ scale of measurement and political affiliation is to the ___ scale of measurement.
ratio; nominal

Measuring in whole units is to __ and measuring in whole units and/or fractional amounts is to ___.
discrete variable; continuous variable

An individual's potential to do something is to ___ and an individual's competence in an area si to ___.
aptitude tests; achievement tests

Sue decided to have subjects in her study of the relationship between amount of time spent studying and grades keep a journal of how much time they spent studying each day. The type of measurement that Sue is employing is known as a(n):
behavioral selfreport

Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the variables with the weakest degree of relationship?
+.01

Which of th following is true?
Alternateforms reliability is determined by assessing the degree of relatioship between scores on two different, equivalent tests.

If observers disagree 20 times out of 80, then the interrater reliability is:
75%

Which of the following is not a type of validity?
alternateforms validity

Which of the following is true?
Criterion validity is the extent to which a measuring instrument accurately predicts behavior or ability in a given area.