Topography terms

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Topography terms
2012-09-17 12:23:02

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  1. Cartographer
    The science practice of drawing maps.
  2. Topographic map
    Map showing arrangements or accurate representation of the physical features of an area.
  3. Stereoscope 
    A device by which 2 photographs of the same object taken at slightly different angles are viewed together creating a 3D depth look.
  4. Stereogram
    A diagram image giving a 3D look to a solid object or surface.
  5. Datum 
    Piece of info; data.
  6. Quadrangle
    The area shown on a standard topographic sheet.
  7. Magnetic Declination
    The angle between magnetic north and true north at a particular location. Also called magnetic variation.
  8. Map Scale
    Ratio of a distance on the map to the corresponding distance on the ground.
  9. Fractional Scale
    Objects on the map have been reduced to 1/24,000th of their original size.
  10. Graphic Scale
    also known as scale bar, linear scale or graphical scale visually shows the relationship between distances on the map and the real world. Usually more than one bar scale is shown on the side of the map, each using a different unit of measurement.
  11. Contour Line
    A line on a map joining points of equal hight above or below sea level.
  12. Contour Interval
    Difference in elevation between each contour line; the space in between.
  13. Index Contour
    A thicker contour line every fifth to help calculate faster. 
  14. Benchmark
    Location whose elevation and horizontal position has been surveyed as accurately as possible. Benchmarks are designed for use as reference points, and are usually marked by small brass plates.
  15. Slope
    The measure of steepness or the degree of inclination of a feature relative to the horizontal plane.
  16. Relief 
    Difference in hight from the surrounding terrain; the amount of variation in elevation and slope in a particular area. 
  17. Topographic Profile
    A 2D diagram that describes the landscape in vertical cross-sections.
  18. Longitude
    Angular distance of a place east or west of the meridian of Greenwich, England. 
  19. Latitude
    Angular distance of a place north or south of the earth's equator.
  20. Prime Meridian
    Planet's meridian, the 0 of longitude. 
  21. Tropic of Cancer ⬆
    Located at 23.5 degrees North of the equator.
  22. Tropic of Capricorn⬇
    Located at 23.5 degrees South of the equator.
  23. Equator
    Imaginary line drawn around the world equal distance from both poles, dividing the hemispheres.
  24. Arctic Circle
    Its exact location varies slightly each year, north of the Equator.  It forms the boundary between the North Temperate and North Frigid zones.
  25. Antarctic Circle
    South of the equator, it forms the boundary between the South Temperate and South Frigid zones.