Study cards 2

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Study cards 2
2012-09-17 21:36:07

BE1 cont
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  1. what are the formulas for conversion of farenheit to celcius and celcius to kelvin?
    5/9 X( Farenheit- 32) 

    Celcius + 273
  2. explain Boyl's, Charles, Dalton's , gay-lussac gas laws
    • Dalton's law: describes the relationship between partial pressure and the total pressure in a gas mixture
    • according to the law, the pressure of a mixture of gases must equal the sum of  partial pressures of all component gases

    partial pressure= fractional concentration X total pressure

    Boyl's law: volume of gas varies inversly with it's pressure  

    • Pressure X volume = K
    • constant is temperature, mass

    Charles law: volume of gas varies directly with temperature

    V/T=K; constant is pressure, mass

    Gay-lussac's law:pressure exerted by a gas varies directly with it's absolute temperature

    P/T=K; constant is volume, mass
  3. Describe situations when communicating with patients/ families would be suboptimal, how do you facilitate communication.
    language barrier, religious differences, cultural barriers, handicaps

    use different channels of communication, get a translator, determine preferences
  4. Define SOAP
    • Subjective
    • Objective
    • Assessment
    • Plan
  5. Distinguish between laminar and turbulent flow
    • Laminar flow: a fluid moves in discreet cylindrical layers or stream lines.
    • Poiseuille's Law: change in pressure is = 8N1V/ pi r

    Turbulent flow: pattern of flow through a tube becomes irregular eddy currents flowing in a chaotic pattern

    Change in pressure= flV2/4pi2r5
  6. Define the following terms:
    True Positive
    True Negative
    False Positive 
    False Negative
  7. Describe the causes and common characteristics of the following symptoms:
    Sputum production
    Chest pain
    Swelling of ankles
    fever/chills/night sweats
    headache/altered mental status/personality changes
    Gastroesophogeal reflux
  8. Identify the 4 classic vital signs and value of monitoring thier trends
  9. Describe the normal values of the following vital signs and common causes of deviation:
    Blood pressure
    Pulse rate 
    Respiratory Rate
  10. Describe how fever affects the following:
    oxygen consumption/carbon dioxide production
    respiratory rate
  11. Define the following terms:
    pulsus paradoxus
    pulsus alternanas
    systolic/diastolic pressure
    pulse pressure
    postural hypotension
  12. State the 3 primary functions of the nose
  13. Define vibrissae and state thier function
  14. Describe the function of the turbonates
  15. Describe the impact of intubation on inspired air
  16. Name the structure that is the narrowest part of the upper airway (adult/child)
  17. Describe the changes in the epithelium as it progresses toward the bronchus
  18. Name the cell type that comprises most of the surface area of the alveoli
  19. Explain why an endotracheal tube is more likely to be inserted into the right mainstem bronchus
  20. Describe cilia function and thier mucociliary clearance role
  21. Define venous aid mixture
  22. Describe function of pores of Kohn and canals of lambert
  23. Define type I,II,III pneumocytes and state which takes up more alveolar surface.
  24. What are the primary neurotransmitters for the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.Differentiate the systems by typical effects from stimulation.
  25. Describe Beta 1&2 receptor stimulation.
  26. Define cAMP and describe its effect on bronchial smooth muscle.
  27. Describes the effects of a drug which inhibits phosphodiesterase would have on bronchial smooth muscle.
  28. Describe how atropine exerts its parasympatholytic effect and the effect on the heart rate.
  29. Name the accessory muscles of inspiration and expiration.
  30. What is released from degranulated mast cells?
  31. Define:
    tidal volume, minute volume, anatomic deadspace(norm value), alveolar deadspace, physiologic deadspace,alveolar ventilation(calculate minute alveolar ventilation volume), hysteresis,hyper/hypo ventilation, Biot's,Kussmaul's,Cheyne-Stokes breathing
  32. Calculate tidal volume off ideal body weight:
    minute volume,estimate VD,alveolar minute ventilation,deadspace minute ventilation, I:E Ratio,I time, RCT
  33. Where are aspirated contents most likely to end up?
  34. What is the average pleural pressure at the end of a passive exhalation.
  35. How do pleural pressures vary across the lung?
  36. What is the average alveolar pressure inspiration/expiration?
  37. What is lung "compliance"? What are the normal values for total static compliance?
  38. What is the normal range for airway resistance? 
  39. What happens to Raw when an artificial airway is inserted?
  40. Where does most of the airway resistance reside?
  41. What happens to airway  resistance  from the bronchi branch to  the alveoli?
  42. What happens to Raw in the presence of mucus secretions, bronchospasms, or mucosal edema?
  43. Patient has an increased minute volume but no change in PaCO2, why?
  44. What is Hooke's Law?
  45. Explain LaPlaces Law.
  46. What is the purpose of surfactant?
  47. What are pathological conditions associated with surfactant deficiency?
  48. What is the receptor signal mechanism used by beta receptor activation similar to adrenergic bronchodilator for ex albuterol?
  49. What are the advantages for using a reservoir device?
  50. How does cholinergic drugs stimulate airway smooth muscle?
  51. What is the predominate sympathetic receptor type found on airway smooth muscle?
  52. What are the physical and chemical properties of the three states of matter and how do they convert into one another?
  53. How do you calculate density of medical gases?
  54. What are the elements which must be present for transmission of infection within a healthcare setting?
  55. What are the characteristics associated with infectious agents?
  56. What are the major routes for transmission of human sources of pathogens in the healthcare environment?
  57. What are some strategies to control the spread of infection in the hospital?
  58. What are the statistics associated with hospital acquired infection?
  59. What are the different methods for sterilizing devices?
  60. What are the equipment handling procedures that prevent spread of pathogens?
  61. State barrier measures based on patient presentation.
  62. What is BTPS?
  63. What is the AARC's code of ethics and statement on professionalism?
  64. Define the ethical principles autonomy,beneficience,role duty,veracity,nonmaleficience, and benevolant deception.
  65. What are the HIPAA regulations?
  66. What are the purposes of the pre-interaction,introductory,initial assessment,treatment and monitoring, and follow-up stages of patient-clinician interaction?
  67. What are the approximate distances and appropriate activities for proper conduct within social,personal, and intimate spaces?
  68. Define territoriality and explain how it applies to RT's?
  69. What are some techniques which display genuine concern during patient-clinician interaction?
  70. What is the premise for universal precautions and methods by which they are practiced?
  71. What is the value in reviewing the admission notes, physician orders, progress notes in a patient's chart?
  72. What are alternative sources available for the patient history?
  73. What are the types of devices used for taking temp.? What affects the accuracy of the devices and common sites / ranges for measurement?
  74. How, where, and what is palpation?
  75. How does hypotension affect perfusion?
  76. What are some factors which cause erroneously elevated blood pressure measurements?
  77. What are the structures of the upper airway?
  78. What are the structures of the larynx and trachea?
  79. Describe the interface at which gas exchange occurs?
  80. Define cAMP and what are its affects on bronchial smooth muscle?
  81. How does atropine exert its parasympatholytic effect and what happens to the heart?
  82. What does a drug which inhibits phosphodiesterase do to bronchial smooth muscle?
  83. What are the structures of the thoracic cage?