The fetus can begin hearing in utero at what week range?
25-30 weeks is when auditory pathway is formulated
The Pharyngeal Arches of the fetus begin forming at what week?
The 4th week
What is primary purpose of the Pharyngeal Arches of a fetus?
Arch 1 turns into tragus, helix (pinna), & concha of outer ear.
Arch 2 turns into the concha, antihelix, and antitragus
The Acoustic Reflex measures what?
The effect if middle ear muscle contraction (stiffening) on the tympanic membrane in response to intense sounds.
True or false: In contralateral acoustic reflex testing, the probe tip enters the left ear but measures the reflex in the opposite ear; the sound travels via the cranial nerve.
True or False: Tympanometry is the measurement of middle-ear pressure, determined by the mobility of the membrane as a function of vairous amounts of positive and negative pressure in the external ear canal.
In Tympanometry, the compliance (peak) on the vertical plane is normal in what range?
In Tympanometry, the compliance (peak) on the horizontal plane (pressure) is normal in what range?
-150 to +50 dPa
In Tympanometry, the normal ear canal volume is in what range?
0.6 - 2.0
On an As tymp, what can you expect to see?
A normal pressure peak on the horizontal plane, but an abnormally shallow (low) peak on the vertical plane.
Is caused by stiffness of the middle ear
On an Ad tymp, what can you expect to see?
A normal pressure peak on the horizontal plane, but an abnormally deep (high) peak on the vertical plane. They may not even meet.
Cause by dislocation of middle ear bones
On a type C tymp, what can you expect to see?
Abnormal (negative) pressure on the horizontal plane, but a normal peak on the vertical plane and normal EC volume.
Could be caused by allergies or upcoming otitis media.
On a type B tymp, what can you expect to see?
Abnormal pressure on the horizontal plane, a flat peak on the vertical plane.
Cause by PE tubes, cerumen, or fluid
A loss at 25-40db is considered what?
A mild loss
A loss at 40-55db is considered what?
A loss at 55-70 is considered what?
A loss at 71-90db is considered what?
A severe loss
A loss at 91+ db is considered what?
What is aural rehab?
Efforts to restore a lost state or function
When were audiologists allowed to dispense hearing aids?
1980s. It was exclusive to hearing instrument specialists before that time.
Why don't nearly 80% of people who could use hearing aids actually get one?
Lack of early identification, access to resources, vanity issues, life experiences, improper fitting instruments
The characteristics of hearing loss include:
Degree/configuration, time of onset, type of loss, and auditory speech recognition ability.
Prelingual deafness is also known as what?
Congenital deafness (onset is before birth or prior to development of speech and language.
Postlingual deafness occurs when?
After age 5
What is the term "deafened" relating to?
those who lose hearing after their schooling is completed.
The level at which the patient can detect a sound is present is called what?
Speech detection threshold (SDT)
The level at which the patient can repeat or identify the stimulus is called what?
Speech recognition threshold (SRT)
WHO identifies a disability as?
An activity limitation, where hearing is not functioning normally.
WHO defines a handicap as?
A participation restriction, with secondary consquences for social, emotional, educational, and vocational implications.
CORE stands for what?
Communication status (impairment), Overall Participation Variables (social, emotional, educational), Related Personal Factors (attitude), and Environmental Factors
CARE stands for what?
Counseling (patient and family), Audibility Improvement (hearing aid fitting), Remediate Communication Activity (repair strategies, speech reading), Environmental coordination (participation improvement)
These tests do not require a behavioral response from patients?
OAE & ABR
These measure tiny echos from the inner ear (cochlear hair cells/sensory)
These measure patterns of electrical activity in the inner ear and brain in response to acoustic stimuli (cochlea and braninstem/neural)
ABR & AABR
This test helps differentiate a sensory vs neural hearing loss and are used for infants/difficult to test children
Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions (EOAEs)
This test is more sensitive and tests the higher frequency ranges of the different hair cells functions
Transient-Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions (TEOAEs)
Better for diagnostics than DPOAEs, which are more like screeners
This test is less sensitive and tests the lower to mid frequency ranges, with the different frequencies stimulating different areas of the cochlea. It is better for a quick screening than for a diagnostic purpose
Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAEs)
Present OAE's indicate what?
An intact cochlea and a clear conductive pathway, and there is no worse than a mild hearing loss.
These measurements establish an objective measure of hearing sensitivity in infants and other persons who are unable to participate in behavioral tests, using a series of auditory stimuli presented by a transducer. An EEG picks up the neural response and the computer averages it.
Auditory Evoked Potentials
The endpoint of an OAE is what?
The cochlea/outer hair cells
ABR's and AABR's end point is where?
The brain stem
This screening test is automatic and used only for infants 6 months and under
This diagnostic test us frequency specific and used for any adult or child that you can't get specific results for (as opposed to an AABR)
With this test, electrodes are placed on mastoid process, vertex, and presents seven small waves in first 10-15 miliseconds
Hearing loss includes what psychosocial aspects? (as a list or series of stages)
Adjustment period, acceptance, lifestyle, unseen variables, and expectations
This component converts the acoustical signal into electrical signal
This component increases the strength of the electrical signal
This component converts the amplified electrical signal back into amplified acoustical signal
This component provides electrical energy to power the hearing aid
This component enhances the use of the hearing aid on the telephone, picking up leaked electromagnetic signals and converting them into acoustic energy
A toggle switch, rotating wheel, or remote control is what hearing aid component?
The volume control
True or False: you cannot use result older than 6 months for fitting someone with hearing aids
True or False: hearing aids need a yearly electroacoustic analysis from the manufacturer.
These measures allow for frequency specific fitting of hearing aids and measure the reliability of the output up to the tympanic membrane
This type of hearing aid can be used for a mild to profound loss, is very durable and is worn by children so they will not have to get frequent ear molds
Behind the ear/BTE
Because of the increased possibility of feedback, and because an open fit allows low frequency sounds to leak out of the ear canal, this type of hearing aid is limited to moderately severe high-frequency losses.
Over the Ear/OTE
These devices fit in the outer ear bowl (called the concha); they are sometimes visible when standing face to face with someone. These are custom made to fit each individual's ear. They can be used in mild to some severe hearing losses. Feedback, a squealing/whistling caused by sound (particularly high frequency sound) leaking and being amplified again, may be a problem for severe
In the Ear/ITE
This type of hearing aid fitting is not visible when worn. It is molded into the canal and does not occlude it by a large plastic shell. These are most suitable for users up to middle age, but are not suitable for more elderly people
In the Canal/ITC
This measurement is the difference in dB between input and output of the hearing aid. (subtraction)
This measurement id the input signal and the aid gain (addition)
This measurement is the response or gain at the frequencies it amplifies
This measurement is the informaiton about the frequency range of the frequencies the aid effectively amplifies
This control on the hearing aid controls the amount of amplification in specific frequencies
Frequency Specific Gain
The maximum output that the hearing iad will amplify to its upper limit is what?
Maximum Power/Pressure Output
This hearing aid control limits the MPO loudness, is frequency specific, and is also known as Automatic Gain Control.
The AGCo and AGCi controls of the AudioScan Verifit do what?
AGCo - limits MPO of hearing aid after the amplifier