A&P ch 3 The cell

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toribloom
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171508
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A&P ch 3 The cell
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2012-09-17 17:53:43
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anatomy physiology
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Anatomy and physiology Ch 3 The Cell
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  1. Bilayer consists of phospholipids (75%), cholesterol (20%), and glycolipids(5%)
    Plasma Membrane
  2. Microvilli CiliaFlagellahairlike processes that in many cases are sensory in function (inner ear – balance and retina-light-absorbing part of thereceptor cell).  Motile cilia are found in the respiratory tract and in the uterine tubes.extensions of the plasma membrane that serve primarily to increase a cell’s surface area “brush border”. Ex.  Cells lining small intestinea whiplike structure much longer than a cilium and is only found in humans as the tail of sperm cell.
    • Microvilli- brush border
    • Cilia- hairlike
    • Flagella- whiplike
  3. Filtration -DiffusionOsmosis-–the net movement of particles from a place of high concentration to a place of low concentration down a concentration gradient.3.     the diffusion of water downits concentration gradient from a region of low concentration of solutes to a high concentration of solutes. It occurs through cellophane, dialysis membranes, and cell membranes.  Aquaporins –channel proteins specialized for the passage of water. The passage of water and solutes through a membrane byhydrostatic pressure.   Pressuregradient pushes solute-containing fluid from a higher-pressure area to alower-pressure area. (Kidneys)
    • Filtration- Fluid moves- high pressure to low pressure Diffusion- particles move
    • Osmosis- water- low concentration to high concentration
  4. Separates intracellular fluids from extracellular
    fluids
    Plasma membrane
  5. Membrane Permeability – _____ molecules
    will diffuse readily and others need a transport protein ______

    Which is polar and non polar
    • non-polar
    • polar
  6. the pressure produced by the solute concentration on one side of a semipermeable membrane.  The higher the solute
    concentration, the greater its osmotic pressure.
    Osmotic Pressure
  7. the ability of a solution to
    affect the fluid volume and pressure of a cell is called _____
    Tonicity
  8. Isotonic –
    Hypertonic –
    Hypotonic –

    1 solutions with the same solute concentration as that of the cytosol

    2 solutions having greater solute concentration than that of the cytosol

    3 solutions having lesser solute concentration than that of the cytosol
    Isotonic – solutions with the same solute concentration as that of the cytosol

    Hypertonic –solutions having greater solute concentration than that of the cytosol

    Hypotonic – solutions having lesser solute concentration than that of the cytosol
  9. Uniport – 
    Symport
    system –

    Antiport system – 

    two substances are moved across a membrane in opposite directions (countertransport) – Na/K ion pump.

     two substances are moved across a membrane in the same direction(cotransport)

    carries only one solute at a time.
    Uniport – carries only one solute at a time.

    Symport system – two substances are moved across a membrane in the same direction(cotransport)

    • Antiport system – two substances are moved across a membrane in opposite directions
    • (countertransport) – Na/K ion pump.
  10. – carrier-mediated
    transport of a solute through a membrane down its concentration gradient.  Passive process –Ex. Glucose
    Facilitated diffusion
  11. carrier-mediated transport of a solute through a
    membrane up its concentration gradient using energy provided by ATP.
    Active Transport 
  12. Sodium-Potassium Ion Pump –
     maintains levels of Na (major extracellular ion) andK(major intracellular ion) by pumping 3 Na out of the cell and bringing 2 Kinto the cell.  **Half of the caloriesyou consume each day are used for this process alone!
  13. material between plasma membrane and the nucleus
    Cytoplasm
  14. largely water with dissolved protein, salts, sugars, and other solutes
    cytosol
  15. metabolic machinery of the cell
    Cytoplasmic organelles
  16. chemical substances such as glycosomes, glycogen
    granules, and pigment
    Inclusions
  17.  - Mitochondria, peroxisomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, and Golgi complex

     - centrosome, centrioles, basal
    bodies, and ribosomes

    Nonmembranous
    Membranous
    Membranous - Mitochondria, peroxisomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, and Golgi complex

    Nonmembranous - centrosome, centrioles, basal bodies, and ribosomes
  18. the largest organelle
    and usually the only one visible under the light microscope
    nucleus
  19. Selectively permeable double membrane barrier
    containing pores.
    Nuclear Envelope 
  20. fine threadlike matter composed of DNA and
    protein
    chromatin
  21. Dark-staining spherical bodies within the
    nucleus where ribosomes are produced.
    nucleoli
  22. Interconnected tubes and parallel membranes enclosing
    cisternae

    Continuous with the nuclear membrane

    Two varieties – rough ER and smooth ER
    ER
  23. External surface
    studded with ribosomes

    Manufactures all
    secreted proteins

    Responsible for the synthesis of integral membrane
    proteins and phospholipids for cell membranes
    Rough (ER)
  24. Tubules arranged
    in a looping network

    Catalyzes the following reactions in various organs of
    the bodyIn the liver – lipid and cholesterol metabolism, breakdown of glycogen
    and, along with the kidneys, detoxification of drugs

    In the testes – synthesis of steroid-based hormones

    In the intestinal cells – absorption, synthesis, and
    transport of fats

    In skeletal and cardiac muscle – storage and release
    of calcium
    Smooth ER
  25. Granules
    containing protein and rRNA

    Site of protein
    synthesis
    Ribosomes
  26. ____ ribosomes synthesize soluble proteins
    Free
  27. _______ ______ ribosomes synthesize proteins to be incorporated into membranes
    Membrane bound
  28. Stacked and flattened membranous sacs
    Functions in modification, concentration, and packaging of proteins

    Transport vessels
    from the ER fuse to the Golgi apparatus 
    Proteins then pass through the Golgi apparatus and carbohydrates are added to some and then the
    substances are packaged into secretory vesicles.

    Substances can be stored or released from the golgi

    ____ are produced in the golgi
    Golgi Apparatus

    Lysosomes
  29. - Spherical membranous bags containing digestive enzymes
      They hydrolyze proteins, nucleic acids, complex carbohydrates, phospholipids, and other substrates.
    • Lysosomes
    • At least 50 lysosomal enzymes have been identified.
  30. membranous sacs that resemble lysosomes, but contain oxidases and catalases that detoxifies harmful or
    toxic substances.  Abundant in liver and kidney cells.
    Decompose fatty acids into 2 carbon acetyl groups to be used by the mitochondria to produce ATP.
    Peroxisomes 
  31. – “Powerhouse”  of the cell Double membrane
    structure with shelflike cristae

    Provide most of the cell’s ATP via aerobic cellular respiration
    Contain their own DNA and RNA
    Mitochondria
  32. Two assemblies of microtubules contained within a centrosome.
    • Centrioles
    • Centrioles play a
    • part in cell division and form the anchoring structure for Cilia and flagella.
  33. The “skeleton” of the cell
    Dynamic, elaborate series of rods running through the cytosol
    Consists of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments
    Cytoskeleton
  34. Dynamic strands of the protein actin 
    Attached to the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane
    Braces and strengthens the cell surface – membrane
    skeleton 
    Attach to CAMs and function in endocytosis and exocytosis
    Microfilament
  35. Tough, insoluble protein fibers with high tensile strength
    Resist pulling forces on the cell
    Line the inside of the nuclear envelope and form a cage that encloses the nucleus
    Intermediate filaments
  36. Dynamic, hollow tubes made of the spherical protein tubulin
    Determine the overall shape of the cell and distribution of organelles
    Allow organelles to move from place to place within the cell
    Microtubules
  37. "suicide cell" 
    Apoptosis

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