A and P II

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A and P II
2012-09-17 22:22:58

Exam One
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  1. Modes of action for amino-based acids
    • 1. Hormone (first messenger) binds to receptor
    • 2. Receptor activates G protein
    • 3. G protein activates adenylate cyclase
    • 4. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP (second messenger)
    • 5. cAMP activates protein kinases
  2. Modes of action for steroids (lipid-soluble hormones)
    • 1. Diffuse into their target cells and bind with intracellular receptors
    • 2. Receptor-hormone complex enters the nucleus
    • 3. Receptor-hormone complex binds to a specific region of DNA
    • 4. This prompts DNA transcription to produce mRNA
    • 5. the mRNA directs protein synthesis
  3. What does thyroid hormone do?
    • increases metabolic rate and heat production
    • maintenance of blood pressure
    • regulation of tissue growth
    • development of skeletal and nervous systems
    • reproductive capabilities
  4. Mode of action for calcitonin
    primary hormone for blood calcium levels
  5. What is aldosterone?
    • most potent mineralocorticoid
    • stimulates sodium reabsorption and water retention by the kidneys
  6. What hormone is secreted by the heart?
    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
  7. What does erythropoietin do? Where is it made?
    • signal production of RBC's
    • made in kidneys
  8. What are the functions of cortisol?
    • keep blood sugar levels constant
    • maintain blood pressure by increasing the action of vasoconstrictors
  9. What hormones are produced by ovaries?
    estrogen and progesterone
  10. Growth Hormone (GH)
    • stimulates most cells, but targets bone and skeletal muscle
    • promotes protein synthesis and encourages use of fats for fuel
  11. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids
    • secreted by corticotrophs of the anterior pituitary
  12. Prolactin
    • secreted by lactotrophs of the anterior pituitary
    • stimulates milk production
  13. Oxytocin
    • stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth
    • also triggers milk ejection ("letdown" reflex) in women producing milk
    • plays role in sexual arousal and orgasm in M and F
  14. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • Gonadotropin
    • promotes production of gonadal hormones
  15. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • Gonadotropin
    • stimulates gamete (egg or sperm) production
  16. Another name for adrenal glands?
  17. Another name for anterior pituitary?
  18. Another name for posterior pituitary?

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