A and P II
Card Set Information
A and P II
Modes of action for amino-based acids
1. Hormone (first messenger) binds to receptor
2. Receptor activates G protein
3. G protein activates adenylate cyclase
4. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP (second messenger)
5. cAMP activates protein kinases
Modes of action for steroids (lipid-soluble hormones)
1. Diffuse into their target cells and bind with intracellular receptors
2. Receptor-hormone complex enters the nucleus
3. Receptor-hormone complex binds to a specific region of DNA
4. This prompts DNA transcription to produce mRNA
5. the mRNA directs protein synthesis
What does thyroid hormone do?
increases metabolic rate and heat production
maintenance of blood pressure
regulation of tissue growth
development of skeletal and nervous systems
Mode of action for calcitonin
primary hormone for blood calcium levels
What is aldosterone?
most potent mineralocorticoid
stimulates sodium reabsorption and water retention by the kidneys
What hormone is secreted by the heart?
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
What does erythropoietin do? Where is it made?
signal production of RBC's
made in kidneys
What are the functions of cortisol?
keep blood sugar levels constant
maintain blood pressure by increasing the action of vasoconstrictors
What hormones are produced by ovaries?
estrogen and progesterone
Growth Hormone (GH)
stimulates most cells, but targets bone and skeletal muscle
promotes protein synthesis and encourages use of fats for fuel
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids
secreted by corticotrophs of the anterior pituitary
secreted by lactotrophs of the anterior pituitary
stimulates milk production
stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth
also triggers milk ejection ("letdown" reflex) in women producing milk
plays role in sexual arousal and orgasm in M and F
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
promotes production of gonadal hormones
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
stimulates gamete (egg or sperm) production
Another name for adrenal glands?
Another name for anterior pituitary?
Another name for posterior pituitary?