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Percentages of blood composition
- Plasma - 55%
- Buffy coat - <1%
- Red cells - 45%
Which component is a COMPLETE cell?
White blood cells
What is the production of each type of blood cell called?
- Erythropoiesis - red blood cell production
- Leukopoiesis - WBC production
Granulocytes and their functions
- neutrophils - "bacteria slayers"
- eosinophils - digest parasitic worms, modulators of the immune response
- basophils - contain histamine (an inflammatory chemical)
Agranulocytes and their functions
- lymphocytes - acts against virus-infected cells, gives rise to plasma cells which produce antibodies
- monocytes - crucial against viruses, intracellular bacterial parasites, and chronic infections; activates lymphocytes
Which cells become plasma cells and make antibodies?
B cells of lymphocytes
The 3 phases of coagulation
- 1. Prothrombin activator is formed
- 2. Prothrombin is converted into thrombin
- 3. Thrombin catalyzes the joining of fibrinogen to form a fibrin mesh
What is the normal pH of blood?
7.35 - 7.45
What is the most abundant plasma protein?
- Rh- mother becomes sensitized when exposure to Rh+ blood causes her body to synthesize anti-Rh antibodies
- Anti-Rh antibodies cross the placenta and destroy the RBCs of an Rh+ baby
- bleeding disorder
- hemophilia A is most common (77%) due to deficiency of factor VIII
deficient number of circulatiing platelets
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
severe bleeding occurs because residual blood unable to clot
- bone marrow totally occupied with cancerous leukocytes
- immature nonfunctional WBCs in the bloodstream
abnormally low WBC - drug induced
excess of RBCs that increase blood viscosity
blood has abnormally low oxygen carrying capacity
What are the causes of hypoxia?
hemorrhage, insufficient hemoglobin, reduced availability of oxygen
Rationale for rhogam treatment of Rh- women
serum containing anti-Rh
Thrombus vs embolus
- thrombus - clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel
- embolus - a thrombus freely floating in the blood stream
nitrogenous by-products of metabolism - lactic acid, urea, creatinine