Biology Test 1 part 2

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HeidiBoehm
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171541
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Biology Test 1 part 2
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2012-09-17 19:41:20
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Biology Study Guide
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  1. What type of binds form when electrons are shared? 
    Covalent bonds
  2. Water is a polar molecule. What does that mean?
    One end of the molecule has a slight negative charge and one end has a slight positive charge.
  3. What organelle would digest food molecules found in food vacuoles?
    Lysosome
  4. What is the cellular function for Mitochondria?
    Cellular respiration - makes ATP which stores energy for the cellular functions.
  5. What is the cellular function for the organelle Ribosomes?
    protein synthesis
  6. What is the cellular function for the organelle Rough ER?
    Process proteins for export from the cell; for incorportation into plasma membrane.
  7. What is the cellular function for the organelle Smooth ER?
    Helps in detoxification and/or lipid synthesis.
  8. What is the cellular function for the organelle golgi?
    Modify, store, and ship substances from the ER
  9. What is the cellular function for the organelle Choloroplast?
    Photosynthesis
  10. If a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, what will happen to the cell? Does it differ between plant and animal cells?
    Water will leave the cell causing it to shrink. It will occur in both plant and animal cells. 
  11. If a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution what will happen to the cell? Does it differ between plant and animal cells? 
    Water will enter the cell. In an animal cell this will cause the cell to swell and possibly lyse; in a plant cell it will cause the cell to develop turgor pressure. 
  12. What is the purpose of cellular respiration? 
    To produce ATP (energy)
  13. What are the 3 stages of cellular respiration, where does each take place and how many ATP are formed?
    Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm and produces 2 ATP, Krebs cycle (cirtric acid cycle) takes place in the mitochondria and produces 2 ATP; electron transport takes place in the mitochondria and produces up to 34 ATP. 
  14. What is the purpose of photosynthesis?
    To produce FOOD for the plant.
  15. What are the 2 main steps to photosynthesis and generally what occurs in each step?
    Light reaction - water is split and hydrogen and electrons are picked up by NADPH; oxygen is released 

    Calvin cycle (dark reaction) - carbon dioxide is fixed to form glucose
  16. What are the 4 main types of organic compounds? 
    Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
  17. What are enzymes?
    Proteins that work as catalysts
  18. What is the formula for photosynthesis? 
    Water + carbon dioxide ===> Water + carbon dioxide + ATP
  19. What is the formula for cellular respiration? 
    Glucose + oxygen ===> water + carbon dioxide + ATP
  20. Which organic compound is most implicated in risk of heart disease? 
    Lipids (Especially trans fats and saturated fats)
  21. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats? 
    • Saturated - have the max # of hydrogens so there are no double bonds, they are usually solid at room temperature and generally come from animals. 
    • Unsaturated - have 1 or more double bonds (they do NOT have the max # of hydrogens) and are usually liquid at room temp and generally come from plants
  22. What organisms store glycogen and which store starch? 
    Animals store glycogen and plants store starch
  23. What type of organic compounds are glycogen and stach? 
    Carbohydrates
  24. What is G3P used to make? 
    More RuBP and glucose
  25. What organisms use photosynthesis?
    Plants and algae
  26. Why is it necessary to have NAD+ in cellular respiration? 
    To act as an electron carrier
  27. What organisms use cellular respiration? 
    Most eukaryotic organisms
  28. What function do the stomata have? 
    Allows the passage of gases into and out of the leaf.
  29. What pigment is necessary in photosynthesis?
    Chlorophyll
  30. How do old growth forests help moderate the greenhouse effect? 
    Store large amounts of carbon and remove CO2 from the air during photosynthesis
  31. What are the two types of fermentation? 
    Lactic acid and alcoholic
  32. What are 2 cellular structures that plant cells have that animal cell do NOT have?
    Central vacuole, cell wall, chloroplasts
  33. How many ATP are produced in fermentation for each molecule of glucose and how does this compare to the number of ATP that are produced in cellular respiration?
    2 ; up to 38 ATP produced in cellular respiration

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