chapter 3 lab

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chapter 3 lab
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2012-09-17 20:26:00
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chapter 3 lab
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  1. pH of   ___ is neutral
    7
  2. acid pH is __ to __
    0 to 6
  3. alkaline pH is __ to __
    8 to 14
  4. urinalysis can be used to
    • 1. screening in a physical exam
    • 2. diagnosis pathological conditions
    • 3. determine effectiveness of a treatment
  5. routine urinalysis consist of 3 parts
    • 1. physical analysis
    • 2. chemical analysis
    • 3. microscopic analysis
  6. urine that stands at room temperature for more than __ hour may undergo changes
    1 hour
  7. the changes in urine that occur more than a hour are
    . bacteria will multiply causing urine to be cloudy

    . cells in urine will lyse ( break down )

    . bilirubin will oxidized with exposure to light

    . glucose decreases as it is metabolized by microorganisms
  8. to preserve urine put it in the
    refrigerator
  9. urine consist of 96% of _____    4%______
    96% water

    4% dissolve substances ( stuff we eat waste products)
  10. sediment
    the material at the bottom of the centrifuged tube of urine which is stained and poured on to a slide
  11. supernatant
    the liquid portion of urine on top of the spun sediment this portion is poured off
  12. kova system
    a microscopic examination of urine consists of examining , counting , and categorizine the solid material seen under the scope. a standard method
  13. anuria
    no flow of urine
  14. bence jones protein
    found in the urine of patients with multiple myeloma
  15. bilirubin is a
    waste product from the breakdown of hemoglobin
  16. casts are
    elements excreted in the urine in the shape of the renal tubules and ducts
  17. diuresis
    increase in the volume of urine output
  18. dysuria is
    painful urination
  19. electrolyte
    element or compounds that forms positively or negatively charged ions
  20. glomerular (Bowman's ) capsule
    cup-shaped stuctured surrounding the glomerulus that collects the glomerular filtrate
  21. glomerulus
    structure in the renal corpuscle made up of tangled blood capillaries in which the hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries pushes substances through the capillary pores
  22. glycosuria
    sugars in the urine
  23. hematuria
    intact red blood cells in the urine
  24. hemolysis
    red cells breaking open and releasing hemoglobin
  25. iatrogenic
    caused by treatment or diagnositc procedures
  26. ketonuria
    ketones in the urine
  27. urinary system has the following functions
    . it removes unwanted wastes

    . it stabilizes blood volume, acidity, and electrolytes

    . it regulates extracelluar fluids of the body and the absorption of calcium ions by activationg vitamin D

    . secretes hormones
  28. the urinary stystem consists of the
    • . kidneys
    • . ureters
    • . urinary bladder
    • . and urethra
  29. erythropoietin
    controls the rate of red blood cell formation
  30. renin
    regulates blood pressure
  31. functional unit of the kidneys
    nephron
  32. for urine specimen collection aleast ___ ml volume is need idea volume_____ml
    • least 25ml
    • idea 50ml
  33. oliguria
    decreased urine volume
  34. nocturia
    excessive urination at night
  35. polyuria
    passing abnormally large amounts of urine
  36. postpone urine test if
    female is menstruating note on requisition if must test
  37. test urine as soon
    as soon as possible or with 1 hour or refrigerate if later than 1 hour
  38. first morning specimen
    . most concentrated

    . formed over an 8 hour period

    . volume at least 25ml
  39. random ( voided) specimen
    . first third in toilet

    . second in container

    . rest in toilet

    this process flushes the meatus of bacteria
  40. clean-catch medsteam urine specimen
    • . clean gentials with antiseptic wipes
    • . urinate in toilet first
    • . collect specimen in cup and then urinate in toilet
    •  
  41. timed urine specimen
    urine specimen be collected at a certain time this type of urine specimen is used in the diagnosis of the cause, control, and prevention of kidney stones 
  42. physical part of a urinalysis consist of
    . observing the color , odor, and appearance ( transparency) of a urine specimen
  43. the color of normal urine is typically described as
    straw colored (light yellow) to amber ( dark yellow)
  44. urochrome
    gives the urine its charascteristic shades of yellow
  45. yellow-brown colored urine
    caused by bilirubin resulting from excessive RBC destruction or bile duct obstructions
  46. orange-yellow colored urine
    caused by bilirubin or urobilinogen resulting for a reduction in the functioning of liver cells or exessive RBC destruction
  47. green colored urine
    caused by biliverdin resulting from the oxidation of bilirubin
  48. dark-red colored urine
    caused by erythrocytes from bleeding of urinary stuctures , menstral cycle or hemoglobin form the breakdown of erythrocytes
  49. red-brown colored urine
    caused by erythrocyctes and hemoglobin or myoblobin ( skeletal or cardiac muscle breakdown)
  50. clear red colored urine
    caused by hemoglobin and porphyrin products
  51. cloudy red colored urine
    caused by intact erythrocytes

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