chapter 3

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139shay
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chapter 3
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2012-09-18 23:31:33
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chapter 3
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  1. odor of urine gives
    clues to pathologic conditions
  2. ammonia odor
    splitting of urea bacteria in the urine
  3. foul odor
    decomposition of leukocytes characteristics of a UTI
  4. musty odor
    phenyletonuria caused by foods like asparagus or by an inherited metabolic condition ( PKU )
  5. sweet or fruity odor
    acetone, ketones , diabetes  low carbohydrates diets
  6. a reagent strip is a
    . thin plastic strip containing pads impregnated with chemical reagents that test for specific substances

    . reagent strips are time dependent
  7. semiquantitiative
    test determines the approximate quantity of an analyte.
  8. qualitative test
    indicateds whether a particular analyte is present
  9. quantitative test
    measures the exact amount of a substance
  10. test on strips are referred to as
    screening tests
  11. urinalysis chemistry strips ( chem strips)
    have multiple reagent pads on each strip

    test for

    • . specific gravity
    • . pH
    • . glucose
    • . ketones
    • . bilirubin
    • . urobilinogen
    • . blood
    • . protein
    • . nitrite
    • . leukocytes
  12. proficiency checklist
    procedure sheets for any new laboratory test must be documented for each person performing the test
  13. automated clinitek method
    urine analyzer that automatically reads the chmistry strips
  14. normal urine has a pH of
    4.5 to  8.0 with most healthy patients being 6.0
  15. urea
    end product of protein metabolism
  16. specific gravity
    . the weight of urine as compared to an equal volume of water

    . water has a standardized S/G of 1.001

    . normal rang is 1.003 to 1.030
  17. confimatory test is clinitest
    detects all reducing substances
  18. multistix test
    detects only glucose
  19. the most common cause of urinary tract infections caused by
    escherichia coli
  20. microalbumin test
    • . test for albumin
    • . found in diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease
  21. bence jones protein test
    . coagulates at temperatures between 45 to 55 C when boiled

    . can be used to detect multiple myeloma
  22. micturition
    expelling of urine, or called voiding and uriantion
  23. chemical testing
    preformed using reagent strips (dipsticks) the analytes usually preagent on a chemical test strips
  24. the color that develops can be used to deterime if any
    analyte is present
  25. ketone in the urine
    . ketone are acide compounds.

    . ketones are products of fat metabolism that are then oxidized by the muscles

    . If glucose, ketones and acidity are all present in the urine the may indicate a condition known as ketoacidosis which may lead to diabetes
  26. symptoms and signs of glucose
    • . dizziness
    • . frequent urination
    • . eating all the time
  27. normal range of glucose in urine
    should be negative you should not have glucose in the urine if so you may have diabetes
  28. blood in urine after begin spunned
    • . hemolysis
    • . UTI
  29. anything undesired or unwanted get rid of this by
    loop of henle and distal convoluted tubules
  30. reabsorption of water , blood, glucose, potassium, uric acid, urea are done by what tubules
    proximal convoluted ( renal tubules)
  31. what is the function of a nephrons
    . filters waste substances from the blood

    . maintain essential water and electrolyte balance of the body

    . reabsorption

    . the structural components of the nephron are the renal corpuscle and renal tubules
  32. how many ureter do we have
    2
  33. where are the kidneys located
    retroperitoneal space behind the peritoneal cavity slightly above the waistline
  34. kidney is composed of three main sections
    • 1. cortex- outer
    • 2. medulla - middle
    • 3. renal pelvis - hollow inner area

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