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2012-09-20 22:56:03
Nucleotides Nucleic Acids

Part 3
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  1. Nucleic Acid
    A polymer of nucleotide residues. The major nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Also known as a polynucleotide.
  2. DNA
    A polymer of deoxynucleotides whose sequence of bases encodes genetic information in all living cells.
  3. RNA
    A polymer of ribonucleotides, such as messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA).
  4. Nucleotide
    A compound consisting of a nucleoside esterified to one or more phosphate groups.  Nucleotides are the monomeric units of nucleic acids.
  5. Nucleoside
    A compound consisting of a nitrogenous base linked to a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose).
  6. Deoxynucleotide
    A nucleotide in which the pentose is 2'-deoxyribose
  7. Base
    • 1 A substance that can accept a proton
    • 2 A purine or pyrimidine component of a nucleoside, nucleotide, or nucleic acid
  8. Purine
    A derivative of the compound purine, such as the nucleotide base adenine or guanine
  9. Pyrimidine
    A derivative of the compound pyrimidine, such as the nucleotide base cytosine, uracil, or thymine
  10. Antiparrallel
    Running in the opposite directions
  11. Bp
    Base pair, the unit of length used for DNA molecules.
  12. Kb
    Kilobase pairs; 1000 base pairs
  13. Oligonucleotide
    A polynucleotide consisiting of a few nucleotide residues.
  14. B-DNA
    The standard conformation of  double-helix DNA
  15. Stacking interactions
    The stabilizing van der Waals interactions between successive (stacked) bases in a polynucleotide.
  16. Melting temperature
    (Tm) The midpoint temperature of the melting curve for the thermal denaturation of a macromolecule.  For a lipid, the temperature of transition from an ordered crystalline state to a more fluid state.
  17. Denaturation
    The loss of ordered structure in a polymer, such as the disruption of native conformation in an unfolded polypeptide or the unstacking of bases and separation of strands in a nucleic acid.
  18. Renaturation
    The refolding of a denatured macromolecule so as to regain its native conformation.
  19. Anneal
    To allow base pairing between complementary single polynucleotide strands so that double-stranded segments form.