Biology chapter 5

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chelsie016
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Biology chapter 5
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2012-09-18 00:14:31
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  1. Hydrophilic 
    (Head) water loving
  2. Hydrophibic 
    (tail) ( water- fearing) 
  3. 10 things found in the plasma membrane
    • 1.) Peripheral protein
    • 2.)Cholesterol
    • 3.)Integral protein
    • 4.)Filaments of cytoseton
    • 5.)Hydrophilic ( heads)
    • 6.) Hydropbic ( Tails)
    • 7.) Carbohrdrate chain
    • 8.)Glycolipid
    • 9.)EMC
    • 10.) Glycoprotein 
  4. Cholesterol function
    Helps modify the fldity of the membrane
  5. Embedded proteins are __________ proteins
    Integral
  6. What are peripheral proteins
    Proteins that occur only on the cytoplamic side of the plasma membrane
  7. EMC are only found in what
    Animals cells
  8. EMC (Extracellular matrix) contain what 2 things
    Various protein fibers and large complex carbohydrate molecules
  9. Lipids due what to the plasma membrance
    Gives the cell is  fluidity charteristic
  10. What two things does fluidity do to the cells
    • 1.) Allows the cell to be flexable
    • 2.) Prevents the membrance from solidiy 
  11. Cholesterol helps prevents what
    The membrance from freezing by not allowing contact between certain phospholipid tails when its cold
  12. Protein are bound together in what; which prevents what
    EMC; prevents them from moving in the fluid phospholipid bilayer. 
  13. Phospholipids with an attached carbohydrate
    glycolipids
  14. Proteins with attached carbodydrate 
    glycoproteins
  15. Engery is not required in what two things
    • Diffusion
    • Facilated transport
  16. Energery is required in what two parts
    Active and bulk transport
  17. Direction of Diffustion and failated transports
    Higher to lower concenrtation
  18. Direction of active and bulk transport
    Lower to higher conentration

    Bulk= outside or inside
  19. Requirment for diffusion and faciliated transport
    1.) Concentration gradents

    2.)Channel. carrier. and concentraion gradents
  20. Requirment of active and bulk transport
    1.) carrier protein and energy

    2.)Vesicle utilization
  21. What does the plasma membrance do and why is it important
    Regulates the passages of molecules in and out the cell

    Cells depends on maintaince of normal compostion
  22. The plamsa membrane is ___________ meain only certain things can pass through
    Differntally 
  23. Molcules that can pass through diffusion and why
    Soluable small molecules
  24. Why can ater cross the membrance so quickly
    Aquaporin
  25. Example of active transport
    Glucose, amino acids... carrier must combine with an ion or molecule
  26. Exapmle of Bulk transpor
    Large particles like marcomolcules
  27. Exaples of facilated transport
    some sugar and amino acids
  28. exaple of diffusion
    Lipids and souble molecues such as gas
  29. 3 types of bulk transport
    • Exocytosis- moveing particle outside the cell
    • Endocytosis- Moving particle inside the cell
    • Vesicle formatin- maromolcules and virus 
  30. Goal of diffusion
    Moving something to a lower concertration so it can reach equilibrium
  31. What two things do solutions have
    • Sloulte (solid)
    • Solvent(liquid)
  32. Factors that influence diffusion
    • 1.)Temperture
    • 2.)Pressure
    • 3.)Molecule size
    • 4.) Electrical currecnts 
  33. Diffusion across differentillay permeable mebrance due to concentration difference is called 
     osomisis
  34. What does Osmotic pressure due
    The greated the osmotic pressure the greater chance that water will diffuse in that direction
  35. 3 types of Osmosis
    Isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic
  36. Hypotonic = what for plants and animals
    • plants= Turgor (does not bust because of cell wall) ( central vaculoe expands)
    • Animals= Hypotonic ( Cell bust)
  37. When a Cell shinks
    • Animals= Hypertonic 
    • plants plamolysis

    Higer concentraion to lower
  38. Isotonic solution
    everything is equal no gain or loss
  39. Rapid passhe of water through channel or carrier protin
    Faclitated transport 
  40. 6 types of proteins and function
    • 1.)Cahnnel protein- molecules to move freely
    • 2.)Carrier protein- Combind with a substance to help it move
    • 3.)Cell regonition protein(tell body when its being invaed)
    • 4.)Receptor proteins( Allows moles to bind o it and chage shape and celluar responce occurs)
    • 5.)Enzymatic protein(Catalyzed a spefic reaction
    • 6.) Junction protein-( From a junction between cell) ( allows embryo to have a nervous system.
  41. Active transport
    Moves from lower to higher concentration ( against concentration gradent)
  42. Sodium - potassim pump guide
    • 1.)Carrier take 3 NA
    • 2.)ATP spilts & phosptate actttaches
    • 3.)3 NA are released
    • 4.)2 K come in 
    • 5.) Phtophate is released
    • 6.)2 K come into the cell
  43. Bulk transport
    Macromolecules have to be transported by vesicle formatiuon
  44. Types of bulk transport and function
    • Exocytosis (Allows secretion to occur) 
    • Endocyctosis( cels take in substance by vesicle formatin)
  45. 3 types of endoysostis
    • Phagocytosis( Large items like food)
    • Pinoytosis( Small like liquids)
    • receptor- mediated Endocytosis(substance attached to recepor protein inside a coated pit
  46. Animals surface 2 
    • Extracellular matric- outside cell
    • Junction- inbetween cell
  47. ECM and juntions both
    contribute to communication between cell and therfore tissue formation
  48. 2 parts of EMC
    • Collegen- resis streching
    • Elastic- give EMC restence
  49. Interin
    Has contrack with cytoskyprs so plays a role in cell signalling
  50. Fibronectin
    Adhesvie protein that binds a protein to the plasma membrance
  51. 3 types of junction
    • Ahesion junction- attach to adject cells
    • Tight junction-plasmsa membrance are attached like a zipper
    • Gap junction- allows cell to communitate

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