urinary system

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Author:
jess03
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17161
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urinary system
Updated:
2010-05-03 13:15:30
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biology
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final
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  1. Secretes _______________, an enzyme that activates hormonesto control ____________ & ___________
    Secretes renin, an enzyme that activates hormonesto control BP & electrolyte balance
  2. Assist lungs in regulating ____________ and acid-base balance.
    Assist lungs in regulating PCO2 and acid-base balance.
  3. Synthesize ______________which helps in Ca++ homeostasis.
    Synthesize Vitamin D which helps in Ca++ homeostasis.
  4. Regulate ___________ of body fluids by controling amounts of solutes and _____________.
    Regulate osmolarity of body fluids by controling amounts of solutes and water.
  5. Secretes the hormone _________________ which controls the RBC count.
    Secretes the hormone erythropoeitin which controls the RBC count.
  6. 50%or more of nitrogenous wastes is ____________, a breakdown of ___________
    50%or more of nitrogenous wastes is urea, a breakdown of proteins
  7. ____________ is the measure of urea in the blood, with normal levels ______________ mg/dL
    BUN is the measure of urea in the blood, with normal levels 10-20 mg/dL
  8. An elevated BUN is termed ________, which may lead to ________, which can lead to death unless treated with ___________, or ____________
    An elevated BUN is termed azotemia, which may lead to uremia, which can lead to death unless treated with dialysis or kidney transplant
  9. THe kidneys arelocated at the level of ____________(vertebrae) with the ____________ kidney lower.
    THe kidneys arelocated at the level of T12 to L3(vertebrae) with the right kidney lower.
  10. The functional unit of a kidney is ____________
    The functional unit of a kidney is nephron
  11. The glandular tissue that forms urine is called the ___________, with 2 zones, the outer region is the ______________ the inner zone, the ___________
    The glandular tissue that forms urine is called the renal parenchyma, with 2 zones, the outer region is the renal cortex the inner zone, the renal medulla
  12. The ________________ dividethe medulla into 6-10_____________,which alongwith the cortex constitute one ___________
    The renal columns dividethe medulla into 6-10 renal pyramids which alongwith the cortex constitute one lobe of the kidney
  13. The ______ is 10mmHg out,which forces filtrationout of the _________ and into the __________ along its course.The average value of this in a normal, healthy individual is _____________mL/min, which is slightly lower in females.
    The Net Filtration Pressure is 10mmHg out,which forces filtrationout of the blood and into the nephron along its course.The average value of this in a normal, healthy individual is 125mL/min, which is slightly lower in females.
  14. This is ____ % reabsorbed in the nephronto leave an average of _____ L/day of urine output.
    This is 99% reabsorbed in the nephron to leave an average of 1-2L/day of urine output.
  15. The movementof fluids through the nephron is: starting in the glomerulus to the _________ then into the nephron loop called the Loop of ________ , which is divided into the descending and __________ loops into the ____________ , to the Collecting ducts to the _____________ duct, to the ____________ to the ____________ calyx to the renal pelvis to the ____________ to the __________ to the ______________
    The movementof fluids through the nephron is: starting in the glomerulus to the Proximal Convoluted tubules then into the nephron loop called the Loop of Henle, which is divided into the descending and ascending loops into the Distal Convoluted tubule, to the Collecting ducts to the Papillary duct, to the Minor Calyx to the major calyx to the renal pelvis to the ureter to the urinary bladder to the urethra
  16. The glomerular blood pressure and therefore the GFR is controlled by 3 homestatic mechanisms.
    A) renal autoregulation nephrons adjust their own blood flow.
    B) Sympathetic nervous control with EPI that constricts afferent arterioles.
    C) Renin-angioten mechanism that is activated by BP dropping that causes secretion of Renin which starts the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which is then converted in the lungs to angiotensinII which vasocontricts both efferent and afferent arteries.
    • The glomerular blood pressure and therefore the _______ is controlled by 3 homestatic mechanisms.
    • A) _________ nephrons adjust their own blood flow.
    • B) ______________ with EPI that _______ afferent arterioles.
    • C) ______________ that is activated by BP _________ that causes secretion of ______ which starts the conversion of angiotensinogen to ______________, which is then converted in the lungs to ____________ which ___________ both efferent and afferent arteries.
  17. What is permeable to water?
    Thin segment
  18. Whatis impermeable to water and activates the NaCl pump?
    Thick segment
  19. What concentrates to urine?
    Collecting ducts
  20. What helps to maitain the salinty?
    Nephron Loop
  21. what absorbs 65% of the filtrate?
    Proximal convoluting tubule
  22. What is the capillary network, exchange system called?
    Vasa Recta
  23. what connects the kidneys to the bladder?
    Ureter
  24. What completes absorptionof solutes, hormonal influenced?
    distal convoluted tubules
  25. What do you call it when there is protein in the urine?
    Proteinuria
  26. What's another name for kidney failure?
    Uremia
  27. What controls the GFR?
    Juxtaglomerular apparatus
  28. What is nitrogenous waste called?
    Urea
  29. Elevated BUN is a sign of what condition?
    Azotemia
  30. The limit that the tubule can reabsorb is called the __________, which for glucose is _________ mg/dL. If it exceedcs this, it will spill in the ureine called __________
    The limit that the tubule can reabsorb is called the transport maximum, which for glucose is 220mg/dL. If it exceedcs this, it will spill in the ureine called glycosuria
  31. The renal corpuscle includes the _____________ which receives blood from _______ arterioles and is enclosed by ____________
    The renal corpuscle includes the glomerulus which receives blood from afferent arterioles and is enclosed by Bowman's capsule
  32. The filtration membrane has ___________ barriers:
    A) _____________ have pores but are highly permeable, but will stop ____________
    B) _____________ small pores and negatively charged
    C) _____________ negatively charged slits
    • The filtration membrane has 3 barriers:
    • A) fenestrated endothelum of capillary have pores but are highly permeable, but will stop blood cells
    • B) Basement membrane small pores and negatively charged
    • C) Filtration slit negatively charged slits
  33. Blood in the urine called _________ or protein in the urine called ___________can both result from strenuous ______________
    Blood in the urine called hematuria or protein in the urine called proteinuria can both result from strenuous excersize
  34. Filtration pressure is largely determined by __________ which is 60mmhg
    Filtration pressure is largely determined by Blood hydrostatic pressure which is 60mmhg
  35. The countercurrent multiplier is the _______________ which keeps the medulla _______x higher in osmolarity than the cortex
    The countercurrent multiplier is the nephron loop which keeps the medulla 4x higher in osmolarity than the cortex
  36. The major hormones that influence the kidneys are:
    A) ________Salt-retainig hormone
    B) __________produced by the heart to ________BP
    C) _______ preserves water
    D) ______stimulated by decreased_____
    • The major hormones that influence the kidneys are:
    • A) Aldosterone Salt-retainig hormone
    • B) Atrial naturietic peptide (ANP) produced by the heart to decreased BP
    • C) ADH preserves water
    • D) PTH stimulated by decreased Ca++
  37. Urine consists of ___________ % water and ___________% solutes
    Urine consists of 95 % water and 5% solutes
  38. Urine volume is ___________ L/day
    Urine volume is 1 to 2 L/day
  39. ___________ chemicals that increase urine volume. Like___________ that dilates afferent arterioles and increase GFR. ________ inhibits ADH.The drug _________ inhibits Na+ reaborption.
    Diuretics chemicals that increase urine volume. Like caffeine that dilates afferent arterioles and increase GFR. Alcohol inhibits ADH.The drug lasix inhibits Na+ reaborption.
  40. Renal clearance is usually measured by _________ clearance which is _____ mL/min.
    Renal clearance is usually measured by creatinine clearance which is 140 mL/min.
  41. Renal calculesusually formed in the renal pelvis is termed __________
    Renal calculesusually formed in the renal pelvis is termed Kidney stones
  42. Common in females caused by e.Coli, in the urinary bladder is ______________
    Common in females caused by e.Coli, in the urinary bladder is Cystitis
  43. Infectionin the renal pelvsis _________, while a more serious infection involvingthe renal cotex and nephrons is called ______________
    Infectionin the renal pelvsis pyletitis, while a more serious infection involvingthe renal cotex and nephrons is called pyelonephritis
  44. That act of urinating is called ______________
    That act of urinating is called micturition
  45. A person can live with ____ of one kidney before requiring _______ to purify the blood. This wouldbe done ____x/wk for _____ hours per treatment.
    A person can live with 1/3 of one kidney before requiring hemodialysis to purify the blood. This wouldbe done 3x/wk for 4 to 8 hours per treatment.
  46. Condition with protein in the urine leading to ascites, hypotension and increased risk of infection is called __________
    Condition with protein in the urine leading to ascites, hypotension and increased risk of infection is called Nephritic Syndrome
  47. Inabillity to hold urine with involuntary leakage from the bladder is _________
    Inabillity to hold urine with involuntary leakage from the bladder is Urinary Incontinence
  48. A floating kidney is ___________, can be low and kink the ureter.
    A floating kidney is Nephroptsosis, can be low and kink the ureter.
  49. Increased fluid pressurein the kidney due to obstruction or other causes is ____________
    Increased fluid pressurein the kidney due to obstruction or other causes is Hydronephosis

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