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moving from high to low concentration.
- The amount of energy it takes to raise a gram of substanace one degree of temperature.
- water good isulator
- Ethyl alcohol
- ice better insulator
- Metals have a lower specific heat.
the amount of energy it takes to raise one gram.
One food calorie is equal to 1000 metric calories. So a teaspoon of sugar (which contains 18 calories) has 18000 calories, enough energy to raise 1 liter of water 18 degrees.
On the left 2/3 of the periodic
on the far right side of the table.
Atoms that do not combine with other atoms.
smaller than atoms
number of protons
sum of protons and neutrons
Average mass of naturally-occuring isotopes of an element.
- Form of Tc used in medicine.
- 99 is the mass number (43 protons+56 neutrons=99)
- 20 protons +27 neutrons =47
- to study bone
- 53 protons +78 neutrons =133
- to destroy thyroid tissue.
- 54 protons +79 neutrons =133
- for respiratory studies.
- You can't touch the inner electron shells(electrons closely associated with the nucleus)
- electrons loosely associated with the nucleus are more free to come and go.
- thus the outer shell determines the chemical properties of the element.
- shells like to be full as in the noble gases.
- atoms will give up or take away electrons to achieve a full state.
- the outer shell electrons are critical for the information of the chemical bonds.
- The number of protons determines the atomic number.
- The number of neutrons can vary.
- For example, hydrogen-1 and hydrogen-2(deuterium) exsist in nature.
- Hydrogen-3(tritium) is man-made.
- These are called isotopes of hydrogen.
- Unstable isotopes that fall apart.
- nucleus falling apart is called nuclear fission.