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2012-09-18 02:42:00

Chapter 2
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  1. A study in which the reseacher unobtrusively observes abd records behavior in the real world
    Naturalistic Observations
  2. A research sample that accutately reflects the population of people one os studying
    Representative Sample
  3. Studies that measure two or more variables and their relationship tp one another
    Correlational Designs
  4. A statistic that ranges from -1.0 to + 1.0 and assess the strength and direction of associates between two variables
    Correlation Coefficient
  5. A research design that includes independent and dependent variables and random assignment of participants to control and experimental groups or conditions
  6. A property that is manipulated by the experimenter under controlled conditoons to determine wheather it causes the predicted ouctcome of an experiment
    Independent Variable
  7. The result of the experiment
    Dependent variable
  8. The method used to assign participants to different research conditions so that all the particiipants have the same chanc eof being in a specific group
    Random Assignment
  9. The substance or treatment that appears identical to the actual treatment but lacks the active substances
  10. The variable whose infulence on the dependent variable cannot be seperated fromt eh independent variable being examined
    Confounding Variable
  11. The studies in which participants fo not know the experimental group they have been assigned
    Single blind studies
  12. Studies in which neither the participants nor the researchers administering the treatment know who has been assigned to the experimental or control group
    Double blind studies
  13. Result that occurs when the behavior of the participants is influenced by the experimenters knowledge of who is in control group and who is in the experimental group
    Experimenter Expectancy Effects
  14. A statement that affects events to cause the presiction to become true
    Self-fulfiling Prophecy
  15. Research technique for combining all research results on one question and drawing a conclusion
    Meta- Analysis
  16. A measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables or the extent of an experimental effect
    Effect Size
  17. The tools and techniques used to assess thought or behavior
  18. Written or oral accounts of a oeersons thoughts, feelings, or actions
    Self reports
  19. Measures based on systematic observations of peoples actions either in their normal enviroment or in a labortatory setting
    Behavorial Measures
  20. The tendency toward favorable slef presntation that could lead to inaccurate self reports
    Social Desirability Bias
  21. Measures of bodily responses, such as blood pressure or heart rate, used to determine changes in psychological state
    Physiological Measures
  22. Collection, analysus, interoretation, and presntation of numerical data
  23. Measures used to describe and summarize research
    Descriptive Statustics
  24. The score that separtes the lower half of scores from the upper half
  25. A statistical measure of how scores in a sample vary around the mean
    Standard deviation
  26. Bell curve
    Normal distribution
  27. The arithmetic average of a series of numbers
  28. A statistic that represents the most commonly occuring score or value
  29. THe number of times a particular scores in a set of data
  30. Analyses of data that allows us to test hypotheses and make an inference as to how likely a sample scare is to occur in a population
    Inferential Statistics
  31. Statistic that compares two means to see wheather they could come from the same population
  32. Standards of right and wrong
  33. The explanation of the purposes of the study following data collection
  34. Organization that evaluate research proposals to make sure research involving humans does not cause unduw harm or distress
  35. Research method similar to experimental design except that it makes use of naturally occuring grouos rather than randomly assigning subjects to groups
    Quasi-Experimental Design
  36. What is an enriched enviroment?
    A. a living situation that provides ample opportunity for play and activity
    B. a living space with room and planty of water
    C. a living situation with all of the latest toys and games
    D. A living enviroment that provides optimal nutritional enrichments as well as adequate sleeping space
    A. a living situation that provides ample opportunity for play and activity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. What is the most rigious study design that can be used to study the effects of enrichments on brain developement in humans?
    A. experimental design
    B. case study
    C. correlational design
    D. quasi-experimental design
  38. If two sets have the same mean,
    A. they must have the same variabiltiy
    B. they must have the similar variablilities
    C. they must have different variablities
    D. their variablities could be the same or they could be different
  39. Why is GPA a good example of the statistic mean?
    A. because it is calculated by adding scores and dividing by the number of scores
    B. because it is a good measure of how well a student is doing
    C. because it measures the spread or variablity of a students performance
    D. because we can plot it on a graph
  40. Scores that are widely spread apart have a
    A. high standard deviation
    B. low standard deviation
    c. high mean
    D. low reliabitly
  41. When conducting a= reserch with humans, researchers
    A. never have to obtain informed consent if it interers with the research
    B. almost alwys must obtain informed consent,
    C. always must obtain informed consent
  42. Current guidelines on research ethics state that when studying humans, deception
    A. must be avoided whenever possible
    B. can only be used only if its of the research design
    C. must be followed by debriefing
    D. must be fully justified
    E. all of the above
  43. Ethical guidelines for research with nonhumans animals state that
    A. informend consent is always required
    B. ethical and humane conditions must exist throughout the entire research process
    C. computer modeling must always be tried before research with animals
    D. deception can be used if fully justified
  44. An advantage of self reort questionaries is that they are easy to adminster to large number of participants. A disadvantage of questionaries is that
    A. they cost too much
    B. people do not always accurately report their true thoughts of feelings
    C. scoring responses is subjective
    D. they have low reliability
  45. One advantage of behavioral measures compared to self reported measures is that they are
    A. are less prone to social desirabilty
    B. are less time-intensive
    C. are always more valid
    D. cost less
  46. A psychologist who is interested in how brain activity relates to behavior will most likely use which kind of measure?
    A. interview
    B. questionaire
    C. behavioral
    D. physiological
  47. Dr. Sexy wanted to do research on real-world conditions that lead to aggression in 10-year-old children. She defined aggression as "intent to harm another person" and went to a local elementary school and videotaped a 10-minute recess perios. She and her trained coders then coded the behavior of every child and counted the number of times each child acted aggressively. Thsi is an example of what kind of research design
    A. descriptive
    B. correlational
    C. case study
    D. experimental
  48. If Dr. Sexy wanted to examine wheather certain personality traits make aggression more likely, she would most likely use what kind of reserach design?
    A. descriptive
    B. correlational
    C. interview
  49. Researchers have consistently  found that married men live longer than single men. From this finding, we can conclude that
    A. if a man gets married he adds years to his life
    B. marriage can cause men to live longer
    C. being single causes men to die sooner
    D. Marriage correlates with longer life
  50. In research on wheather sugar causes hyperactivity, researchere randomly assign children to no sugar, small amount od sugar, or large amounts of sugar. They then observe and code activity levels. In this case, the sugar levels are the
    A. outcome variable
    B. dependent variable
    C. independent variable
    D. Control
  51. In contrast to other kinds of research designs, a true experimental design must have two things:
    A. random assignment of participants to conditions and statistical analysis
    B. random assignment of participants to conditions and manipulation of an independent variable
    C. manipulation of an independent variable and dependent variabe
    D. hypothesis testing and observation
  52. Scientific Method is
    A.observing, predicitong, testing
    B. observing, prediciting, trying
    C. observing, predicitong, testing.communication
    D. observing, predicitong, testing, interpreting, communicating
  53. Which of the following is not a characteristic of science?
    A. its cumulative
    B. its is a search for the truth
    C. its an attitude
    D. it requires untellectual honesty
  54. Scientific theories are
    A. a set of related assumptions that guide and explain observations and allowe testable predictions to be made
    B. educated guesses
    C. hunches
    D. hypothese
  55. What distinguishes science from pseudoscience?
    A. use of statistics
    B. content area studied
    C. open skepticism
    D. the search for the truth
  56. Case study
    weakness: its to small for a real experiment
    strength: you can understand to a further extent
    True or False
    True, case study is studying one oerson or a small number of people for an extended period of time
  57. Naturalistic Observation
    weakness: it can take a long time
    strength: its real
    True or False
  58. Why do you need a control group?
    To makes sure that the independent variable is the only thing causing the change for the dependent variable in the experiment
  59. Why do we need random assignment?
    We want on average for them to be similar on important variables.