Chapter 1

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Chapter 1
2012-09-20 15:51:34
Combining Forms Terminology Sections

(textbook pages 6–14)
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  1. aden/o
    • gland
    • adenoma: Tumor or mass of a gland.
    • adenitis: Inflammation of a gland.
  2. arthr/o
    • joint
    • arthritis: Inflammation of a joint.
  3. bi/o
    • bi/o life
    • biology: Study of life. -logy: log (study), -y (process or condition).
    • biopsy: Removal of living tissue from the body and examinated, viewed under a microscope.

    • bi- two
    • bifurcation: Forking (branching) into two, normal splitting into two branches; as the trachea bifurcates into two individual tubes to form the bronchi.
    • bilateral: Pertaining to two sides.
  4. carcin/o
    • Cancerous, cancer
    • carcinoma: Cancerous tumor.
  5. cardi/o
    • heart
    • cardiology: Study of the heart.
  6. cephal/o
    • head
    • cephalic: Pertaining to the head. -ic (pertaining to)
  7. cerebr/o
    • cerebrum (largest part of the brain)
    • cerebral: Pertaining to the brain. -al (pertaining to)
  8. cis/o
    • to cut
    • incision: Process of cutting into. Scissors cut. 
    • excision: Process of cutting out.
  9. crin/o
    • to secretre (to form and give off)
    • endocrine glands: Glands that secrete hormones within the body,  directly within (into) the bloodstream (e.g., thyroid, pituitary, and adrenal glands) the prefix endo- means within.
    • exocrine glands: release their secretions (e..g., saliva, weat, tears) through tubes (ducts) to the outside of the body.
  10. cyst/o
    • urinary bladder; a sac or a cyst (sac containing fluid).
    • cyst/oscopy: Process of visual examination of the urinary bladder.
    • (-scopy: complex suffix scop (visual examination) and -y (process)).
    • cyst/ocele: Hernia of the urinary bladder
    • (-cele: hernia)
  11. cyt/o or
    • cell
    • cytology: Study of cells.
    • erythrocyte
    • cytoplasm: Contents (formation) of the cell (apart from the nucleus and cell membrane).
  12. erythr/o
    • red
    • erythrocyte: A red blood cell.
  13. leuk/o
    • white
    • leukocyte: White blood cell.
  14. derm/o or
    • skin
    • dermatitis: inflammation of the skin.
    • dermatology Study of skin
    • hypodermic: Pertaining to under the skin.
    • hypo- (under or below) deficient, less than normal
  15. electr/o
    • electricity
    • electrocardiogram: Record of the electricity in the heart. ECG (or sometimes EKG)
    • cardi (heart), -gram (record)
  16. encephal/o
    • brain
    • electroencephalogram: EEG Record of the electricity of the brain. 
    • encephalitis: inflamation of the brain
  17. enter/o 
    • intestines (usually the small intestine)
    • enteritis: Inflammation of the intestines.
  18. gastr/o
    • stomach
    • gastrectomy: Removal of the stomach.
    • -ectomy: excision or removal (e.g., nephrectomy-removal, excision of a kidney.
    • gastrotomy: Incision of the stomach.
    • -tomy: complex suffix tom (to cut), -y (process of) process of cutting, incision
  19. hypo/gastr/ic
    • hypo- (under or below)
    • hypo/gastr/ic: pertaining to below the stomach
  20. epi/gastr/ic
    • epi- (above or upon)
    • epi/gastr/ic: pertainig to above or upon the stomach
  21. gnos/o
    • knowledge
    • diagnosis: State of complete knowledge; information gathered about a patient’s illness(dia- = complete; gnos/o = knowledge; -sis = state of).
    • prognosis: State of before knowledge; prediction about the outcome of an illness.An agnostic is a person who professes no (a-) knowledge of God.
  22. glyc/o
    • sugar
    • hyperglycemia Condition of increased blood sugar.
  23. gynec/o
    • woman, female
    • gynecology Study of females and female diseases.
  24. hemat/o or
    • blood
    • hematology: Study of blood.
    • hematoma: Collection (mass) of blood.
    • hemoglobin: Blood protein found in red blood cells. Hemoglobin carries oxygen to the cells from the lungs and carbon dioxide away from cells to the lungs.
  25. hepat/o
    • liver
    • hepatitis Inflammation of the liver.
  26. iatr/o
    • treatment, physician
    • iatrogenic: Pertaining to being produced by treatment. A rash occurring after treatment with a drug, such as penicillin, is an iatrogenic condition.A related term, nosocomial, refers to any infection acquired in a hospital(nos/o means disease and -comial comes from the Greek “I take care of”).
  27. log/o
    study of
  28. nephr/o
    • kidney
    • nephritis: Inflammation of the kidney.
    • nephrology: Study of the kidney.
    • nephrectomy: removal, excision of a kidney.
  29. neur/o
    • nerve
    • neurology Study of nerves.
  30. onc/o.
    • oncology: Study of tumors.
    • oncologist Specialist in the study of tumors.
    • ist (one who specializes in a field of medicine or other profession)