Chemistry: Pt. 4
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What is matter?
What can it be divided into?
- anything that takes up space and has mass
- mixtures and pure substances
What is a mixture?
- blend of two substances added together without chemically changing the individual substances
- - physically separate the components of that mixture
What is mixture divided into?
- homogeneous and heterogeneous
- hetero: different quantities in different sections (sand)
- Homo: uniform throughout (salt water, alloys)
What is a pure substance?
formed when atoms of different elements combine in a way that creates new material with new properties (chemical compounds)
What is pure substance broken into?
- elements: smallest
- chemical compounds
The most common type of chemical bond is formed when two atoms __.
They result in __.
- share their electrons= covalent bonding
When one or more electrons are transferred: __
Who gets what?
- ionic bonding (ionic solids)
- metals give up electrons
- nonmetals accept
Steps to naming binary ionic compounds:
- 1) identify the positive ion and the negative ion
- 2) The positive ion uses its elemental name
- 3) The negative ion substitutes the second half of its elemental name with -ide
- 4) Do not use Greek prefixes
__: A neutral compound in which the total number of positive charges must equal the total number of negative charges.
What do we use if there is more than one cation?
Roman numerals in parentheses
How to name binary molecular compounds?
- The more cationlike element uses its elemental name
- The more anionlike element substitutes the second half of its elemental name with -ide.
- Use Greek prefixes
How do you determine more cationlike and anionlike?
- To the left and down: cationlike
- To the right and up: anionlike
True or False: In chemical compounds, the prefix is added to both elements.
Whenever hte prefix of a binary molecular compound ends in "a" or "o" and the element name begins with a vowel, what do we do?
Drop the "a" or "o" on the prefix
In chemical compounds, what does the subscript tell us (O2)?
- tells us how many atoms in a single unit
- two atoms are joined together to form single bond that becomes molecule; single
Two types of chemical bonds: __?__
- ionic --> crystalline structure (compound)
- covalent--> molecule
In terms of naming, what do binary ionic compounds have?
cation and anion
Metal bound to nonmetal-->__
Nonmetal to nonmetal--> __
What would you like to do?
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