Ecology Stats

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Author:
zzto
ID:
171653
Filename:
Ecology Stats
Updated:
2012-09-20 08:30:10
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Ecology Stats ECU
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Ecology Stats Lecture ECU
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  1. 1
  2. Experiment --------------- vs. observation study -------------
    • (imposes a treatment)
    • (collect and analyze w/o change)

    Can help determine cause and effect
  3. Confounding factor-
    a variable in an experiment that was not anticipated before an experiment, but is known now (slope in fertilizer experiment)
  4. correlation association
    find definition
  5. correlation does not mean
    causation
  6. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
    The Scientific Method
  7. mesocosms
  8. Experimental design:
    (1) Replicate—(2) Assign treatments at random.(3) Statistical analysis is used to determine significant effects.
  9. As the number of replicates increases, it becomes less likely that the
    results were actually due to a variable that was not measured or controlled.
  10. Assigning treatments at random helps to limit
    the effects of unmeasured variables.
  11. Three Basic Principles of Experimental Design
    • The treatment is applied independently to the experimental unit(s)
    • 2 EUs)The treatment is randomly applied.
    • The treatment is replicated…in space and time.
  12. Stastics are
    a way to quantify uncertainty
  13. Statistics deals with
    • Data collection
    • Summarizing the data
    • Placing data into some context
  14. Statistics allows a scientist to make sense of ----------------- and to test -------------
    • numbers
    • hypotheses
  15. a sample is a
    subset of a much larger population
  16. Two tailed test
    two sided If the sample that is being tested falls into either of the critical areas, the alternative hypothesis will be accepted instead of the null hypothesis.(Ie boys may be smarter or girl may be)
  17. Dispersion
    (standard error, standard diviation, variance, rangemeasures values outside of mean)
  18. Measures of central tendency examples
    (mean median mode)
  19. variance-
    the degree to which values deviate from the mean
  20. The more deviation from the mean, the greater the degree of --------- in the data
    “spread”
  21. Alternative hypothesis (Ha)-----
    the hypothesis that represents a change or an effect
  22. Decision rule:
    a rule for deciding whether or not to reject the null hypothesis
  23. Null hypothesis (Ho):
    the hypothesis that represents no change or no effect
  24. t-test
  25. Error-
    When our hypothesis is wrong
  26. Type I error is erroneously saying things are
    different when in fact they are not.
  27. S2 p
    is the pooled variance;  assumes both populations have equal variances
  28. tcalculated
  29. tcritical
  30. In order to compare the 2 samples (female vs. male) we need to
    • -Compute the t statistic based on our data.
    • -Determine the degrees of freedom.
    • -Set the level of significance (α).
    • -Compare t-calculated statistic to t-critical statistic.
    • -If tcalculated > tcritical, REJECT H0

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