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the discipline of biology dealing with the classification of organisms
father of taxonomy. He developed in the 18th century
How do these groupings indicate evolutionary relationships
- -phylum or division class
- archaea:unicellur prokaytes
- live in harsh aquatic enviroments that lack oxygen
- unicellular prokaryotes
- found almost everywhere
- composed of eukaryotic cells.
- includes both unicllar and multiple organisms
- each organism is given 2 word name its genus and species.
- Homo sapiens...underline
ecological terms and give examples
- ecology-the scientific study of the interaction of the oranism and the enviroment
- Interaction-means that the activities of organisms are reciprocal with the enviroment and with other organisms
- Enviroment-the surroundings of an organism. It includes both the biotic and abiotic components.
- biotic-the living things
- abiotic-nonliving things
organisms in the enviroment are grouped into populations
- population-a group of interbreeding individuals within a defined geographical area.
- ex: all the catfish in one pond to one population and those in another pond belong to another population.
- community-consist of all populations of different species living in a specified, defined area.
- ex: all the species in the pond
- ecosystem: an ecological unit of geography consisting of all the included communities and the abiotic components.
- biosphere-the sum total of all the ecosystems on the earth.
- habitat:the place in the ecosystsm where an organism lives.
- ex;the habitat of an intestinal parasite in the intestine of the host.
the number of individual per unit area.
it is the spacing of individuals within the habitat.
3 types of ecological distribution
- uniform distribution-occurs when organisms of a population are evenly distributed throughout a region
- clumped distribution-characterized by number of individuals clustered in particular locations within a region.
random distribution-occurs when individuals in a population are spaced at random; that is individuals occur in no discernible pattern thoughout a region.
what determines population dynamics and growth
- rate of population=the difference between the number of individuals entering a population and those leaving over a particular time.
- 2 ways enter a population are by birth and immigration and 2 ways leave is by death and emigration.
2 major types of growh rate curves
- exponential growth curve:it is j shaped.
- under ideal conditions
- logisitic growth curve:it is s shaped
- most populations in nature exhibit this type of growht.
- characterized by slow growth at first because there are few breeding age individuals
distinguish between density-dependent mechanisms and denisity-mechanisms and give examples of each
- desnsity-dependent mechanisms:
- selevtive pressures that vary in intensity as a result of the density increases and their effects decrease a s population density decreases.
- ex: predation, competition, and disease
- DENSITY-independent mechanisms:
- these are factors affectiong population growth that are not related to population density
- ex: floods, extremes in weather
- the role or job of organism in the community.
- sum total of all interactions of the organism within the enviroment.
- ex:coyote niche is that of a predator
- occurs between members of the same species.
- It increases as population density increases.
- ex: the competition among sparrows
- occurs between members of different species.
- It arises from niche overlap and the more the niches overlap the greate the interspecific competition
- ex: sunfish and bass in same pind may compete for same kind of insects
gauses's competition exlcusion principle
- no 2 species can occupy the same niche for an extended period of time.
- one of the competing species will be excluded
- ex: experiment with Paramecium cauadatum
Collary to Gause's principle
- if 2 or more species occupy a similar niche it can be demonstrated that the niche is subdivided so that the 2 species can coexist.
- ex: MacArthurs study of 5 species of NA warblers
- INTERspecific competition.
- Is reciprocal.
- That is as the prey population increases so does the predaor population , and as the prey poplulation decreases so does the predator populaion, and as the prey population decreases so does the predator popluation.
- cyclic oscillaition patter.
a relationship between organisms that live in close association.
- the parasite lives on or inside a living host.
- only the parasite is benefitted; the host is harmed
- ex: tapeworm living in the intestine of many species.
- one species benefits from the relationship ; the other is neither helped nor harmed
- Mutualism: both organisms benefit from the relationship
- ex: relationshsip of the trichonympha and termite.
description of ecosystems:
- functional unit in nature.
- interaction between the biotic and abiotic
energy in ecosystems
- to sustain themselves all ecosystems require a constant input of energy.
- ultimate source is solar energy.
food chains and food webs
- energy flows through the biotic components of the ecosystem. the passage of energy from one organism to another takes place chain.
- food chain: a feeding pattern within an ecosystem who eats who or what
- primary procedures-in most ecosystems they are the photosynthetic organisms-the plants in terrestrial ecosystems and the algae in aquatic ecosystems.
- trap the solar energy and convert it to chemical energy.
- primary consumers-the organisms that eat the primary producers. herbivores.
- ex: caterpillars, cows, horses
- secondary consumers-
- organisms that eat primary consumers
- ex: coyotes wolves dogs lions
- specialized consumers that are vital to ecosystems.
- Acquire food molecules from non-living matter.
because the 2nd law of thermodynamics useable energy is lost as organis matter is passes 1 trophic level to the next.
3 types of ecological pyramids:
- 1.pyramids of numbers:shows the number of organisms at each trophic level
- 2. Pyramids of biomass:shows the mass or weight of all of the organisms at each trophic level
- 3.Pyramids of energy:shows the energy measured in calories available at each trophic level.
3 components of human blood
- blood-circulationg connective tissue
- blood vessels-tubes that blood flows within
- heart-muscular pump that generates the pressure to move the blood through the heart and blood vessels.
Compnenets of human blood
- a)plasma-55% of total blood volume
- 2. dissolved solids
- plasma proteins
- amino acids
- B)foremd elements
- -normal counts 4-6
- structre - mature RBC"s are nonnucleated
- fucntion is to transport o2 cells
- -RBCS that are nucleated
- -involved with the bodys defense against disease
- -fragments of cells
Give functions of the following types of blood vessles
- -Arteries-blood vessles that carry blood away from the heart.
- -veins-blood vessles that carry blood to the heart
- -capillaries-blood vessles that are the sits of exchange of nutrients and wastes between the blood and the cells.
- -arterioles-smallest arteries in diameter and carry blood into capillary networks.
- -venules- smallest veins in diameter and carry blood away from capillary networks
Describe the body 3 lines of defense
- first line- Barriers at body surface
- These include the intact skin and the mucous membranes at other body surfaces.
- second line-nonspecific responses:
- these are defenses against a great variety of pathogens and are in place before the danger occurs.
- do not require exposure to the pathogen
- third line- the Immune responses:
- Involves 2 kinds of WBC's B cells and T cells
- pathogen to be activated
substance that iliictis a specific immune response when it is present in the body
specialized protein that is produced in response to the prescence of the antigen
- -involves the production and release into the blood and lymph of anitbodies to various anitgens
- -effective against most bacteria
- -at the lymphy nodes or other lymphatic tissues B-cells inteact with their antigens.
- -The B cells with their processed antigens then interact with the helper T cells
- -activates the B cells and they undergo rapid cell divisions.
- -most B cells develop into plasma
- -plasama cells then produce anitbodies that are releases in toe blood and lymph
- -anitbodies combine with the specific antigen that stimualted its immunity to the antigen.
cell mediated immunity
- resistance to infection that results from an anitgen induced activation of an individual specific immune responses
- long duartion
borrowed immunity-antibodies to an antigen can be transferred into an individual from other sources exposed to the antigen
- advantage: long duration
- disadvantage: slow acting because immunity not immediate
- advantage: immunity immediate
- dis: short duation