the discipline of biology dealing with the classification of organisms
father of taxonomy. He developed in the 18th century
How do these groupings indicate evolutionary relationships
-phylum or division class
live in harsh aquatic enviroments that lack oxygen
found almost everywhere
composed of eukaryotic cells.
includes both unicllar and multiple organisms
each organism is given 2 word name its genus and species.
ecological terms and give examples
ecology-the scientific study of the interaction of the oranism and the enviroment
Interaction-means that the activities of organisms are reciprocal with the enviroment and with other organisms
Enviroment-the surroundings of an organism. It includes both the biotic and abiotic components.
biotic-the living things
organisms in the enviroment are grouped into populations
population-a group of interbreeding individuals within a defined geographical area.
ex: all the catfish in one pond to one population and those in another pond belong to another population.
community-consist of all populations of different species living in a specified, defined area.
ex: all the species in the pond
ecosystem: an ecological unit of geography consisting of all the included communities and the abiotic components.
biosphere-the sum total of all the ecosystems on the earth.
habitat:the place in the ecosystsm where an organism lives.
ex;the habitat of an intestinal parasite in the intestine of the host.
the number of individual per unit area.
it is the spacing of individuals within the habitat.
3 types of ecological distribution
uniform distribution-occurs when organisms of a population are evenly distributed throughout a region
clumped distribution-characterized by number of individuals clustered in particular locations within a region.
random distribution-occurs when individuals in a population are spaced at random; that is individuals occur in no discernible pattern thoughout a region.
what determines population dynamics and growth
rate of population=the difference between the number of individuals entering a population and those leaving over a particular time.
2 ways enter a population are by birth and immigration and 2 ways leave is by death and emigration.
2 major types of growh rate curves
exponential growth curve:it is j shaped.
under ideal conditions
logisitic growth curve:it is s shaped
most populations in nature exhibit this type of growht.
characterized by slow growth at first because there are few breeding age individuals
distinguish between density-dependent mechanisms and denisity-mechanisms and give examples of each
selevtive pressures that vary in intensity as a result of the density increases and their effects decrease a s population density decreases.
ex: predation, competition, and disease
these are factors affectiong population growth that are not related to population density
ex: floods, extremes in weather
the role or job of organism in the community.
sum total of all interactions of the organism within the enviroment.
ex:coyote niche is that of a predator
occurs between members of the same species.
It increases as population density increases.
ex: the competition among sparrows
occurs between members of different species.
It arises from niche overlap and the more the niches overlap the greate the interspecific competition
ex: sunfish and bass in same pind may compete for same kind of insects
gauses's competition exlcusion principle
no 2 species can occupy the same niche for an extended period of time.
one of the competing species will be excluded
ex: experiment with Paramecium cauadatum
Collary to Gause's principle
if 2 or more species occupy a similar niche it can be demonstrated that the niche is subdivided so that the 2 species can coexist.
ex: MacArthurs study of 5 species of NA warblers
That is as the prey population increases so does the predaor population , and as the prey poplulation decreases so does the predator populaion, and as the prey population decreases so does the predator popluation.
cyclic oscillaition patter.
a relationship between organisms that live in close association.
the parasite lives on or inside a living host.
only the parasite is benefitted; the host is harmed
ex: tapeworm living in the intestine of many species.
one species benefits from the relationship ; the other is neither helped nor harmed
Mutualism: both organisms benefit from the relationship
ex: relationshsip of the trichonympha and termite.
description of ecosystems:
functional unit in nature.
interaction between the biotic and abiotic
energy in ecosystems
to sustain themselves all ecosystems require a constant input of energy.
ultimate source is solar energy.
food chains and food webs
energy flows through the biotic components of the ecosystem. the passage of energy from one organism to another takes place chain.
food chain: a feeding pattern within an ecosystem who eats who or what
primary procedures-in most ecosystems they are the photosynthetic organisms-the plants in terrestrial ecosystems and the algae in aquatic ecosystems.
trap the solar energy and convert it to chemical energy.
primary consumers-the organisms that eat the primary producers. herbivores.
ex: caterpillars, cows, horses
organisms that eat primary consumers
ex: coyotes wolves dogs lions
specialized consumers that are vital to ecosystems.
Acquire food molecules from non-living matter.
because the 2nd law of thermodynamics useable energy is lost as organis matter is passes 1 trophic level to the next.
3 types of ecological pyramids:
1.pyramids of numbers:shows the number of organisms at each trophic level
2. Pyramids of biomass:shows the mass or weight of all of the organisms at each trophic level
3.Pyramids of energy:shows the energy measured in calories available at each trophic level.
3 components of human blood
blood-circulationg connective tissue
blood vessels-tubes that blood flows within
heart-muscular pump that generates the pressure to move the blood through the heart and blood vessels.
Compnenets of human blood
a)plasma-55% of total blood volume
2. dissolved solids
-normal counts 4-6
structre - mature RBC"s are nonnucleated
fucntion is to transport o2 cells
-RBCS that are nucleated
-involved with the bodys defense against disease
-fragments of cells
Give functions of the following types of blood vessles
-Arteries-blood vessles that carry blood away from the heart.
-veins-blood vessles that carry blood to the heart
-capillaries-blood vessles that are the sits of exchange of nutrients and wastes between the blood and the cells.
-arterioles-smallest arteries in diameter and carry blood into capillary networks.
-venules- smallest veins in diameter and carry blood away from capillary networks
Describe the body 3 lines of defense
first line- Barriers at body surface
These include the intact skin and the mucous membranes at other body surfaces.
second line-nonspecific responses:
these are defenses against a great variety of pathogens and are in place before the danger occurs.
do not require exposure to the pathogen
third line- the Immune responses:
Involves 2 kinds of WBC's B cells and T cells
pathogen to be activated
substance that iliictis a specific immune response when it is present in the body
specialized protein that is produced in response to the prescence of the antigen
-involves the production and release into the blood and lymph of anitbodies to various anitgens
-effective against most bacteria
-at the lymphy nodes or other lymphatic tissues B-cells inteact with their antigens.
-The B cells with their processed antigens then interact with the helper T cells
-activates the B cells and they undergo rapid cell divisions.
-most B cells develop into plasma
-plasama cells then produce anitbodies that are releases in toe blood and lymph
-anitbodies combine with the specific antigen that stimualted its immunity to the antigen.
cell mediated immunity
resistance to infection that results from an anitgen induced activation of an individual specific immune responses
borrowed immunity-antibodies to an antigen can be transferred into an individual from other sources exposed to the antigen
advantage: long duration
disadvantage: slow acting because immunity not immediate