Card Set Information
Year 12 Human Biology 3ab - medical technologies
Explain ages affects on hair:
the hair thins and pigment loss causes hair to turn grey
Explain aging affects on the eyes:
Lenses become less flexible making focusing difficult. There also become densor making it difficult to see in dim light.
Increased risk of developing cataracts, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration
Age effects on the ears:
nerve cells deteriorate causing gradual hearing loss
Age effects on the mouth and teeth:
Saliva production if reduced, the gums start to recede, tooth enamel thins and cavaties and tooth loss become more common
Age effects on the Brain:
some loss of nerve cells and reduced amount of neurotransmitter substances produced
slower reflexes and poorer coordination, minor memory loss can occur
Age effects on the skin:
becomes thinner, drier, less elastic and more wrinkled.
Temperature control is more difficult due to the skin thinning and a reduction in sweat glands
Age effects on the lungs:
lung capacity decreases due to increased rigidity of the chest wall and loss of elasticity of lung tissue
breathing muscles weaken and the lungs start to absorb slighty less oxygen
Age effects on the Heart:
Can become less efficient and take longer to respond to any increase in physical activity.
Vessels supplying heart muscle can degenerate and become blocked with fatty deposits
Age effects on the Breasts:
some glandular tissue is replaced with fibrous tissue, causing them to loose firmness
Age effects on the immune system:
the system takes longer to respond when fighting disease and to recover from infections.
Some allergies become less severe
Age effects on the Digestive System:
movement of food slows through the gut causing constipation.
A decrease in digestive enzymes also reduces digestion efficiency
Age effects on the Kidneys:
these organs begin to get slightly smaller after the ago of 30 but generally function adequately in old age.
Age effects on the Arteries:
these blood vessels loose some of their elasticity and their walls become thicker ane less flexible
This 'hardening' of the walls makes it more difficult for the heart to pump blood through them, causing an increased pressure
Age effects on the Bladder:
in women, muscles od the urinary sphincter that control urine flow often weaken and lead to urine leakage.
in men, the prostate gland enlargens blocking the flow of urine out of the bladder.
frequent blockage can lead to incomplete bladder emptying.
Age effects on the reproductive systems:
in women, the cessation os ovulation results in the cessation of menstration (menopause).
the vagina looses elasticity and the production of natural lubrication which can make sexual intercourse uncomfortable
the ovaries and uterus become smaller
in men, sperm production decreases with age but most men remain fertile until death.
Age efects on bones:
bone density decrease with age, making bones more brittle, prone to breakage
Age effects on muscles?
these lose bulk and strength as a person ages. The amount of physical acitivy sustained can alter the rate of muscle weakening
Age effects on the joints:
synovial fluid decreases with age, reducing joint mobility
the articular cartilage also thins and can degenerate, making joint movement painful
external, eg supports, bionic limbs
internal, eg artificial joints and physiotherapy
grafting and transplantation
Human life span:
diseases and treatments of an aging population
quality of life and authanasia
Aids for mobility: mechanical technologies
- Repair, devices or equipment that can assist in the repair or replacement of diseased or injured body parts eg. replacement limbs, bionic limbs
- Mobility, devices or equipment that provide a means of transportation eg. scooters
- Support, devices or equipment that help support injured bones and muscles eg. splints, braces, walking sticks, crutches and walking frames
Dietary supplements: chemical technologies
usually tablets with vitamins, minerals, amino acids and fatty acids that may be defficient in diet
Drugs: chemical technologies
reduce or cure symptoms of debilitating disorder
Tissue regeneration: biological technologies
from stem cell technology (may be able to grow new organs)
Grafts and Organ transplantation: biological technologies
replace defective organ
Aging population diseases:
- cerebrovascular disease
- chronic kidney disease
- colorectal cancer
- Alzheimer's disease
- Parkinson's disease
- deficiency in a neurotransmitter in the brain cell dopamine
- managed by medication that relives the symptoms
- no cure and results in deaths
- new treatment may be possible with cell replacement therapy
- progressing degeneration illness that attacks the brain
- linked to degeneration of neurons in the brain due to plaque coating
- mostly affects ober 65 years of age
- often begins with memory lapses and vocabulary difficulty
- progress at different rates in individuals and may vary on a daily basis
- treatment is limited with very few drugs having any affect
Bones and Joints:
- bone mass begins to reduce from approximately 30 to 40 years of age
- due to decreased rate of bone production but bone reabsorption remaining at the same rate.
- changes in hormone levels result in decline in bone strength
- repair processes slow down
- vertebrae may collapse leading to joints to distortion and pressure on spinal nerves
- intervertebral discs shrink and, with loss in bone mass, a decrease in height and spinal curvature result
- caused by degernation of cartilage and the formation of bony outgrowths called spurs around the adges of the degenerative cartilage
- this results in painful, stiff and inflammed joints, limiting movements
- painkillers like paracetamol relieve pain by reducing inflammation
- surgically replacing the affected joint with an artificial joint of metal, plastic or ceramic
- caused by bones that are less dense than normal bone
- fractures are more common even with minor injuries
- bone growth is a balance between bone formation and bone reabsorption
- as people age bone production slows but bone reabsorption still continues at the same pace. over time bone density decreases
Prevention of osteoporosis:
- high clacium and vitamin D in the diet from an early age
- regular weight-bearing exercise
- avoid alcohol or smoking
- in older women HRT helps replacement of oestrogen which helps maintain bone mass