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2012-09-18 11:20:18

Typography study guide
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  1. Ascender
    The part of certain lowercase letters that extends above the x-height of a font.
  2. Ascender Line
    A line marking the topmost point of the cap lines.
  3. Back Matter
    Material, such as indixes or appendixes, that comes after the main text. Also called "end matter."
  4. Base Line
    The line along which the bases of all capital letters (and most lowercase letters) are positioned. 
  5. Boldface Type
    A thick, heavy variety of type, often used for emphasis.
  6. Cap Height 
    The height of uppercase letters within a font.
  7. Cap Line
    A line marking the height of uppercase letters within a font.
  8. Composing Stick
    Hand-held adjustable metal tray which lead type is set into during hand-composition.
  9. Condensed Type
    Type that is narrow in width proportionate to its height.
  10. Descender
    The part of certain lowercase letters that extends below the base line of the letter.
  11. Descender Line
    A line marking the lowest point of the descenders within a font.
  12. Display Type
    Type intended to catch the eye, usually of a large size and distinctive type face.
  13. Em
    A unit of measurement equal to the current type size, e.g., an em in 12-point type is equal to 12 points. Originally derived from the width of the upper-case M.
  14. En
    A unit of measurement equal to half of one em.
  15. Expanded Type
    Type that is elongated in width proportionate to its height.
  16. Face
    The top, printed end of lead type.
  17. Flush 
    Aligned to the margin, i.e., with no indention.
  18. Folio
    A page number.
  19. Font
    Traditionally, a complete set of characters for one typeface at one particular type size. Often used more loosely as a synonym for "typeface."
  20. Foot
    The bottom end of lead type which rests in the bed of the press.
  21. Front Matter
    Material, such as a title page, copyright page, a table of contents, etc., that comes before the main text.
  22. Golden Section
    The ideal proportion according to the ancient Greeks. It is visualized as the division of a line into two unequal segments in such a way that the ratio of the smaller segment to the larger segment is equal to the ration of the larger to the whole. It is usually defined as 21:34, that is, 21/34 and 341 (21+34) both equal approximately 0.618. A rectangle whose sides are of this proportion is called a "golden rectangle." Golden rectangles can be found in the proportions of the Parthenon and many medieval manuscripts. 
  23. Gutter
    The inner margin of a page, closest to the binding.
  24. Hanging Indention
    Type set with the first line of the paragraph flush left, and the subsequent lines indented.
  25. Indention
    The amount by which a line of type is set less than a full measure, as when the first line of a paragraph is begun with a blank space of some fixed width.
  26. Italic
    A slanted variety of typeface, often substituted for underlining. 
  27. Justification
    Slight adjustments made to the space bands within a line of type so that it fully extends to a particular line length.
  28. Leading
    (Pronounced "ledding") The amount of vertical space between lines of type.
  29. Letterspacing
    Extra space inserted between letters in a word.
  30. Ligature
    A special double character in a font representing two letters as one. In modern typography, the most common ligatures are: fi,  fi,  ffi,  ffl, and sometimes ff. Others include the vowel pairs ae and oe, and more rarely, ct, st, and sp.
  31. Margins
    The blank areas beyond the edges of the type pane.
  32. Matrix
    The mold used to cast a letter of type in hot-metal composition. (pl. matrices)
  33. Pica
    A unit of measurement traditionally equal to about 1/6 inch. (In some modern typesetting systems, a pica is treated as exactly 1/6 inch.) There are 12 points to a pica.
  34. Pica pole
    Metal ruler used to measure pages.
  35. Point 
    A unit of measurement, often used to measure type size, equal to 0.013837 inch. Some modern typesetting systems consider the point to be 1/72 of an inch, or 0.013888 inch.
  36. Recto Pages
    The odd numbered, right-hand pages of a book.
  37. Rule
    A line added to a page for emphasis or decoration.
  38. Running Foot
    Material, such as book title, chapter title, author's name, or folio, printed BELOW the main text of a page.
  39. Running Head
    Material, such as book title, chapter title, author's name, or folio, printed ABOVE the main text of a page.
  40. San-Serif Type
    Text using typefaces that have no serifs, such as Helvetica, Optima, or Futura.
  41. Serif
    A small cross stroke accentuating the end of the main stroke of a letter in some typefaces.
  42. Serif Type
    Text using typefaces that have serifs, such as Times, Baskerville, or Courier. Also called "roman," although "roman" is also used to describe type that is neither italic nor bold. 
  43. Swash Letters 
    Elaborate italic letters used for decorative initials and headings.
  44. Type Size
    The size of type, measured in points between the bottom of the descender and the top of the ascender.
  45. Verso Pages
    The even numbered, left-hand pages of a book.
  46. Widow
    The last line of a paragraph occurring at the top of a page.
  47. X-Height
    The height of those lowercase letters such as "x", which have no ascenders or descenders.