Intro to Human Anatomy & Physiology :: Unit 1

Card Set Information

Author:
kipkun
ID:
171751
Filename:
Intro to Human Anatomy & Physiology :: Unit 1
Updated:
2012-09-18 21:55:42
Tags:
ACC anatomy physiology flash cards
Folders:

Description:
Introduction to Human Anatomy & Physiology Unit 1 Exam
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user kipkun on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Be able to explain the principle "form follows function"
    Anatomy is structured according to the functions associated with its use
  2. What are the 4 characteristics of life as described in class?
    • Responsiveness
    • Growth
    • Reproduction
    • Movement
    • Metabolism

    RGRM2
  3. What are the three subparticles found in the atom?
    Protons, Neutrons, Electrons
  4. Be able to describe each of the 3 subparticles found in the atom: size, location and charge
    Protons and Neutrons are located within the nucleus of an atom whereas the Electrons are located on the electron shell/cloud.

    Protons are positive. Neutrons are neutral. Electrons are negative.
  5. How does Electrons fill up the electron shells and what impact does this have on how atoms interact with each other?
    Only 2 electrons can fill up the first ring. Then 2nd and 3rd rings, only a total of 8 electrons per ring.

    For stability, the atoms try to find other potential atom with a spare electrons to share or "receive" from. In an attempt to fill up the ring.
  6. What are two types of molecular bonding discussed in class?
    Ionic and Covalent
  7. What are the relative strengths of Covalent and Ionic bonding?
    Covalent is typically stronger than Ionic bonding. Covalent shares its electron unlike Ionic where it may gain or loses an electron to another atom.
  8. What is an ion?
    An ion is the result of an atom losing or gaining an electron turning it into a charged particle (+ or -)
  9. What is an electrolyte solution?
    a liquid containing dissolved ions
  10. What is the difference between Polar and Non-Polar molecules?
    • Polar molecule is the unequal sharing of electrons (H2O)
    • Non-Polar molecule is an equal sharing of electrons (CH4)
  11. What is intermolecular bonding?
    molecules are held together by a number of forces
  12. What is hydrogen bonding?
    important intermolecular/intramolecular bond that is weak and quickly broken

    occurs only through Polar Covalent molecules (such as water)
  13. What is homeostasis?
    ability of an organism to maintain its internal environment
  14. What two types of mechanism for control are available to cells, tissues, organs and organ systems?
    Positive and Negative Feedback
  15. Can you recognize the difference between positive and negative feedback mechanisms for homeostasis control?
    Negative Feedback: variation outside normal limits triggers automatic corrective response, negating disturbances

    Positive Feedback: stimulus produces response that reinforces the stimulus, response rapidly completes critical process
  16. What is homeostatic range?
    healthy normal range of values for a specific factor of the internal environment
  17. What are the main factors of the internal environment that must be controlled by organisms?
    oxygen, CO2, waste products, pH, blood volume, pressure, nutrients
  18. How is disease related to homeostasis?
    Fever: body temperature increases due to foreign organisms within the body, body attempts to kill it by raising temperature, once body is within a safe limit, temperature drops to normal
  19. What is the difference between anatomy and physiology? Be able to describe the different types of anatomy and physiology discussed in class.
    • Anatomy: Study of structure/form
    • ::Gross - features of the organism that can be seen with the naked eye
    • ::Surface - all of the superficial & internal features of a specific region of the body

    • Physiology: Study of functions
    • ::Cell - study of the functions of living cells
    • ::Pathophysiology - study of the effects of diseases on cellular, organ, and organ system function
  20. What is a chemical reaction?
    new chemical bonds are formed between atoms and/or existing bonds are broken
  21. Define metabolism
    sum of all chemical reactions
  22. Define energy
    Ability to do work
  23. Define Potential Energy
    stored energy
  24. Define Kinetic Energy
    motion
  25. What are the two laws of thermodynamics discussed in class and how do these relate to human physiology?
    First Law: Energy can change from one form to another and from one state to another but can never be lost

    Second Law: all objects in the universe are disordered and is continually increasing
  26. What is a decomposition reaction?
    breaks a molecule into smaller fragments (catabolism)
  27. What is a hydrolysis reaction?
    complex molecule is broken down in the presence of water and the components of water are added to the fragments

    Ex) food digestion
  28. What is a synthesis reaction?
    reactions that assemble larger molecules from smaller parts (anabolism)
  29. What is a dehydration reaction?
    formation of a complex molecule by the removal of water

    Ex) removal of a hydrogen from H2O between molecules
  30. What is an exchange reaction?
    the parts of the reacting molecules are shuffled around (recombination)
  31. What are the four factors that can impact the rate of reactions and how do they impact reaction rates?
    • Temperature: enzymes work best at a certain temperature, but in general higher temperatures mean faster reactions
    • Concentration: higher concentration of substrate increases the speed of the reaction
    • Surface Area:
    • Catalyst:
  32. What is activation energy and how is it related to catalysts?
    amount of energy required to start a reaction

    • Catalysts reduce activation energy to speed reaction
    • -Enzymes catalyze cellular reactions
  33. What are enzymes and how do they function?
    Proteins that lower the free energy of activation needed for the chemical reaction to take place at cellular temperatures

    • Enzyme Functions
    • I) Substrate (reactant) binds causing a conformational change
    • II) Enzyme promotes product formulation
    • III) Product detached and enzyme is free to repeat process
  34. What is an active site?
    one or more grooves/furrows on the enzyme surface into which reactants nestle
  35. What traits do all enzymes share?
    Specificity: only one type of reaction can be catalyzed by each enzyme

    Saturation limit: all enzymes have a top speed at which they can operate

    Regulation: enzymes can be active at some times and deactivated at others
  36. What are the 3 characteristics of water important to life as discussed in class? Be able to explain and recognize each.
    Cohesion: ability of water to form bonds with itself

    Adhesion: ability of water to form bonds with other stuff

    Capillary action: ability of water to draw things into it
  37. What is an acid-base reaction?
    reaction of an acid with a base usually producing a salt and water
  38. What is the difference between an acid and a base?
    Acids:

    Bases: chemical compound that accepts a proton and causes water to contain less H+ so the pH will be higher than 7
  39. What is pH?
  40. How does the pH scale work?
    neutral pH is 7 (meaning equal number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions);

    each change represents 10X less or more concentration of H+
  41. How does a buffer work?
    solution containing weak acid and its coordinating weak base (often in salt form) such that when acid or base is added, there is little change in pH
  42. What is a biomolecule?
    organic compounds that make up living things

    composed of a carbon-based core with various functional gruops which define functional properties of the substance
  43. What is a macromolecule?
  44. What is a carbohydrate?
    the fuel and building materials of all organisms
  45. What are the building blocks of carbohydrates?
    contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen where concentration of Hydrogen to Oxygen atoms is 2:1
  46. What are monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides, starch, glycogen and cellulose?
    Monosaccharides (simple sugars of 3 to 7 carbons) - Glucose, Ribose

    Disaccharides - two monosaccharides joined together - Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose

    Polysaccharides - two or more monosaccharides are linked together through condensation reactions - Glycogen

    Starch -

    Glycogen - carbohydrate storage in animals (Stockpiles of glocygen found in the liver and muscles for short term energy)

    Cellulose -
  47. What do we use carbohydrates for?
    short term energy storage
  48. What is ATP? How does it function within the human body as a high energy compound?
    ATP is adenosine triphosphate - composed of the nucleotide adenine and three phosphates

    the 3rd phosphate attached to the ATP is released for cellular activities
  49. What is cell theory?
    • I) basic building blocks of all animals and plants
    • II) smallest functional units of life
    • III) products of cell division
    • IV) basic homeostatic units
  50. What is a eukaryotic cell?
    a unit whose complex internals are enclosed by a membrane
  51. What are the two classes of eukaryotic cells?
    prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  52. Plasma Membrane
    [What is it composed of, What is the Function, Where is is Located on a Human Cell]
    Lipid biplayer containing phospholipids, steroids, proteins and carbohydrates

    Function: Isolation, Protection, Sensitivity, Support, Gatekeeper

    Surrounds the cell
  53. Cilia
    [What is it composed of, What is the Function, Where is is Located on a Human Cell]
    microtubules

    Function: movement of material over cell surface
  54. Flagella
    [What is it composed of, What is the Function, Where is is Located on a Human Cell]
    Function: movement

    Located: outside of cell
  55. Villi/Microvilli
    [What is it composed of, What is the Function, Where is is Located on a Human Cell]
    Membrane extensions containing microfilaments

    Function: Increase surface area to facilitate absorption of extracellular materials

    Located: outside of cell
  56. Cytoplasm
    [What is it composed of, What is the Function, Where is is Located on a Human Cell]
    contains dissolved nutrients, ions, soluable and insoluable proteins and waste products
  57. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    [What is it composed of, What is the Function, Where is is Located on a Human Cell]
    network of membranous channels extending throughout the cytoplasm

    Function: modifies and packages newly synthesized proteins

    Location: within the cell
  58. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    [What is it composed of, What is the Function, Where is is Located on a Human Cell]
    network of membranous channels extending throughout the cytoplasm

    Function: synthesizes lipids and carbohydrates

    Located: within the cell
  59. Golgi Apparatus
    [What is it composed of, What is the Function, Where is is Located on a Human Cell]
    stacks of falttened membranes (cisternae) containing chambers

    Function: storage, alteration and packaging of secretory products and lysosomal enzymes

    Located: within the cell
  60. Lysosomes
    [What is it composed of, What is the Function, Where is is Located on a Human Cell]
    vesicles containing digestive enzymes

    Function: intracellular removal of damaged organelles or pathogens

    Located: within the cell
  61. Peroxisomes
    [What is it composed of, What is the Function, Where is is Located on a Human Cell]
    vesicles containing degradative enzymes

    Function: catabolism of fats and other organic compounds, neutralization of toxic compounds generated in the process

    Located: within the cell
  62. Mitochondria
    [What is it composed of, What is the Function, Where is is Located on a Human Cell]
    double membrane, with inner membrane folds (cristae) enclosing important metabolic enzymes

    Function: produce 95% of the ATP required by the cell

    Located: within the cell
  63. Nucleolus
    [What is it composed of, What is the Function, Where is is Located on a Human Cell]
    Function: site of rRNA synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits

    Located: within the nucleus
  64. Nucleus
    [What is it composed of, What is the Function, Where is is Located on a Human Cell]
    nucleoplasm containing neucleotides, enzymes, nucleoproteins, and chromatin; surrounded by a double membrane, the nuclear envelope

    Function: control of metabolism; storage and processing of genetic information; control of protein synthesis

    Located: within the cell

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview