A people's unique way of life, as shown by its tools, customs, arts and ideas.
A prehostoric period that lasted from aout 2,500,000 to 8,000 B.C., during which people made use of crude stone tools and weapons--also called "Old Stone Age".
A prehistoric period that began aout 8,000 B.C., and in some areas ended as early as 3,000 B.C., during which people learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops, and raise animals--also called "New Stone Age".
The biological species to which modern human beings belong.
Man of skill.
A form of caveman.
A memer of a group that has no permanent home, wandering from place to place, in search of food and water.
A memer of a nomadic group whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods.
The major change in human life caused by the beginnings of farming--that is, by people's shift from food gathering to food producing.
A system of writing with wedge-shaped symbols, invented by the Sumerians around 3,000 B.C.
A period of human history, beginning around 3,000 B.C in some areas, during which people began using bronze, rather than copper or stone, to fashion tools and weapons.
An arc of rich farmland in Southwest Asia, between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea.
In Buddhism, a state of perfect wisdom in which one understands basic truths about the universe.
A belief in a single god.
Mandate of Heaven;
Chinese history, the divine approval thought to e the basis of royal authority.
The historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties.
A Chinese political philosophy based on the idea that a highly efficient and powerful government is the key to social order.
A war, fought around 1200 B.C. in which an army led by Mycenaean Kings attacked the independent trading city of Troy in Anatolia.
A belief in many gods.
A king of ancient Egypt, considered a god as well as a political and military leader.
A government in which the ruler is viewed as a divine figure. ( A government controlled by religious leaders)
A massive structure with a rectangular ase and four triangular sides, like those that were built in Egypt as burial places for Old Kingdom Pharaohs.
A group of seminomadic peoples who, about 1700 B.C., began to migrate from what is now southern Russia to the Indian subcontinent, Europe, and Southwest Asia.
An Indo-European people who settled in Anatolia around 2000 B.C.
An Indo-European people who, about 1500 B.C., began to migrate into the Indian subcontinent.
Four collections of sacred writing, produced by the Aryans during an early stage of their settlement in India.
In Aryan society, a member of the social class made up of priests,
One of the four classes of people in the social system of the Aryans who settled in India-- Priests, warriors, peasants or traders, and non Aryan laborers or craftsmen.
In Hinduism and Buddhism, the process by which a soul is reborn again and again until it achieves perfect understanding.
Hinduism and Buddhism, the totality of the good and bad deeds performed by a person which is believed to determine his or her fate after rebith.
A government in which power is in the hands of a single person.
A government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility.
A government in which power is in the hands of few people-- especially one in which rule is based upon wealth.
A government controlled by its citizens either directly or through representatives.
A serious of wars in the fifth century B.C., in which Greek city-states battled the Persian Empire.
Thinkers who use logic and reason to investigate the nature of the univers, human society, and morality.