Bio 203

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kdevaugh
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171768
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Bio 203
Updated:
2012-09-19 18:24:35
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Bio
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Exam 1
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  1. Phospholipids
    a bilayer of phospholipid molecules forms the framework of the plasma membrane
  2. Proteins
    consist of a chain of amino acids joined by covalent bonds called peptide bonds
  3. Examples of proteinds (need to know) :
    • albumin
    • laminin
    • collagen and colagen IV
    • keratin
    • hemoglobin
    • all enzymes
    • elasin
    • actin
    • myosin
    • fibrillin
  4. Proteoglycans
    unusual proteins that have enormous amounts of carbohydrate covalently bound to them. Found in the basement membrane and in he matrix of connecive tissue. Importan in holding water in the tissue and maintaining hydration
  5. Nucleotide
    • Phosphate group
    • five-carbon sugar
    • one of the following 5 nitrogenous organic bases
    • -adenine
    • -guanine
    • -cytosine
    • -thymine( only in DNA)
    • -uracil (only in RNA)
  6. Nucleic acid
    consists of a string of nucleotides
  7. Components of a plasma membrane
    • lipids and glycolipids; include phospholipids and cholesterol
    • proteins and glycoproteins
    • carbohydrates
    • can have microvilli
  8. Components of cytoplasm
    • endoplasmic reticulum
    • ribosomes
    • Golgi
    • mitochondria
    • lysosomes
    • peroxisomes
    • centrosomes
    • cilia; flagella
    • vesicles
    • microfilaments
    • mirotubules
    • inclusions
  9. Components of nuclus
    • nuclear envelope
    • nucleolus
    • chromatin (DNA and protein)
    • nuclear matrix
  10. Intercellular junctions
    • tight junctions
    • desmosomes
    • gap junctions
  11. Ways substances cross the plasma membrane
    • diffusion
    • facilitated diffusion
    • osmosis (special case of diffusion involving water passing through the pores made up of aquaporins)
    • endocytosis
    • exocytosis
    • active transport
  12. What produces energy in the form of ATP?
    • enzymes
    • coenzymes
    • oxidation
    • metabolism of glucose
    • fatty acids
    • amino acids
  13. Oxidation
    the removal of 2 hydrogen atoms at a time
  14. Reduction (opposite of oxidation)
    addition of hydrogen atoms to a molecule
  15. What is a gene?
    a gene is a string of nucleotides in the DNA of the nucleus
  16. Transfer RNAs
    • methionine
    • glycine
    • serine
    • alanine
    • phenylalanine
  17. The codon AUG
    Signals start at the beginning of a coding region of all genes
  18. Chaperones
    folds the newly formed peptide chain
  19. Proteins that are not needed, damaged, or misfolded are tagged by:
    ubiquitin. The ubiquitinylated proteins are then recognized by the proteasome that destroys the tagged protein.
  20. 4 major groups of organic substances (always contain carbon and hydrogen):
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic acids Nucleotides
  21. Carbohydrates (always contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen)
    Include: sugars, which are burned by the cells of the body to produce energy:
  22. Carbohydrates (always contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen)
    • Include: sugars, which are burned by the cells of the body to produce energy-
    • Monosaccharides- ex: Five-Carbon
    • Disaccharides- ex: Sucrose
    • Polysaccharides- ex: Glycogen
  23. Lipids (not soluble in water, dissolve in organic solvents such as methanol)
    • Triglycerides= Fats ex: glycerol + 3 fatty acids
    • Steriods- ex: testosterone
    • Phospholipids- ex: phosphatidycholine
  24. Components of nucleotides
    • Nitrogen-containing base
    • 5- carbon sugar
    • One or more phosphate groups
    • (DNA, RNA, ATP)
  25. Denaturation
    heat will break hydrogen bonds, causing disorganization of the protein structure and loss of its unique properties. If an enzyme it will cease to function.
  26. Genetic disease
    involve a change (mutation) in one amino acid in an important protein ( such as an enzyme or structural protein) 
  27. 5 levels of organization
    • Molecules
    • Cells
    • Tissues (made of cells)
    • Organs (groups of tissues)
    • Systems (groups of organs)
  28. Superior/ Inferior
    • Superior: towards the head
    • Inferior: away from the head
  29. Anterior/ Posterior
    • Anterior: toward the front
    • Posterior: towards the back
  30. Medial/ Lateral
    • Medial: towards the midline
    • Lateral: towards the side
    • Ipsilateral: same side
    • Conralateral: opposite side
  31. Proximal/ Distal
    • Proximal: towards the main mass of the body
    • Distal: away from the main mass of the body
  32. Superficial/ Deep
    • Superficial: towards the surface of the body
    • Deep: away from the surface of the body
  33. Central/ Peripheral
    • Central: at the center
    • Peripheral: around the side
  34. Sagittal Plane
    Divides the body into left and right portions
  35. Transverse Plane
    Divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) segments
  36. Coronal Plane
    Divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions
  37. Osmosis
    diffusion of water through the cell membrane
  38. Interphase:
    • G1
    • S
    • G2
    • Repeat
  39. Mitosis (PMAT)- occus when the cell is dividing
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  40. Differentiation
    • the process of cells dividing, eventually the daughter cells start looking different from one another
    • (each cell contains same genetic information encoded in the DNA of its nucleus, some genes are turned off and others on)
  41. Cell Cycle Checkpoints
    provide time for DNA repair and editing, and help prevent cancer, happen before and afer replication of cells
  42. Apoptosis
    cell suicide (programmed cell death) ex: neurons die within the developing brain and self-reactive lymphocytes are purged within the thymus gland
  43. Ways substances can pass across the plasma membrane without energy espenditure by the cell:
    • Hypertonic solution: shrinks
    • Hypotonic solution: expands
    • Isotonic solution: no difference
  44. Homeostasis
    the process of regulation in the human body
  45. 4 needs of humans
    • Food
    • Water
    • Oxygen
    • Warmth
  46. 6 Factors under homeostatic control:
    • body temperature
    • oxygen level in blood and tissues
    • pH of blood and body fluid
    • salt content
    • glucose level in blood
    • metabolic waste product levels
  47. Negative feedback
    balances change in the body
  48. Ways cells differ from each other:
    • function
    • shape
    • ability to move
  49. Invasive techniques for exploring the body:
    endoscopy (endoscopes)- insert into body opening or small surgical incision
  50. Non-invasive techniques for exploring the body:
    • X-rays
    • CAT
    • PET
    • MRI
    • Ultrasonography
  51. Intercellular Junctions:
    • Tight junctions: seal space between cells, segregate proteins (between cells in epithelial sheet)
    • Desmosomes: hold cells together (between cells in skin)
    • Gap junctions: communicating junctions (cardiac muscle)
  52. Nucleus- contains nearly all of the DNA found in the cell:
    • Nuclear envelope
    • Nucleolus
    • Chromatin
  53. Diffusion (no energy required)
    movement of molecules from a high concentration to a lower concentration
  54. Facilitated diffusion (no energy required)
    Substances that are insoluble in lipids are helped across the cell membrane involving special carrier proteins
  55. Osmosis (no energy required)
    special case of diffusion where aquaporins form channels for water to pass through
  56. Active transport (energy required)
    substances pass from regions of high concentration to lower concentration
  57. Endocytosis
    • large particles that are too large to enter the cell by diffsion or active transport enter the cell by a process that involves pinching in a portion of the cell membrane to form an intracellular vesicle
    • Phagocytosis-cell eating
  58. Exocytosis
    opposite of endocytosis (release content)
  59. Cytokinesis
    Starts in the middle of anaphase and is complete at end of telophase
  60. Tumor suppressor genes
    inactivation or loss causes cancer
  61. Proto-oncogens
    activation causes cancer
  62. Necrosis
    accidental cell death, not suicide (apoptosis)
  63. Nuclear transfer cloning (DOLLY)
    An oocyte is taken and the nucleus is removed. Using electric pulses, it is then fused with a differentiated donor cell complete with nucleus taken fom an adult.
  64. Anabolic Metabolism
    • synthesis of new molecules, uses energy
    • Ex: glycogen, fat, and protein synthesis
  65. Catabolic Metabolism
    • breakdown of molecues, generates energy
    • Ex: Polysaccharides into monosaccarides, proteins into amino acids and fatty acids ino glycerol
  66. Enzymes
    • proteins that act as catalysts for specific chemical reactions
    • functions: speed up reactions, but not consumed
  67. Names of enzymes:
    • add suffix -ase to the name of the substrate
    • ex: lipid --> lipase
    • ex: protein--> protease
  68. Cofactors- substances required for some enzymes to function
    • Metal ions
    • Coenzymes
  69. Metal ions necessary for enzyme function:
    • iron
    • calcium
    • cobalt
    • copper
    • magnesium
    • manganese
    • molybdenum
    • zinc
  70. Poisons
    Cyanide: interfere with respiratory enzymes in the mitochondria and kill cells by halting their ability to make ATP
  71. Controlled burning of glucose to produc useful energy (ATP)
    I molecule of glucose = 34 ATP
    • 1. glycolysis
    • 2. formation of acetyl coenzyme A
    • 3. addition of the acetyl two-carbon fragment to oxaloacetic acid to form citric acid in the Krebs cycle
    • 4. the electron transport chain
  72. What organ uses fats as its primary source of energy?
    Heart
  73. Deamination
    Removal of nitrogen-containing group, combined with carbon dioxide, and converted into the waste urea, is then excreted via the urine
  74. Metabolic Pathways
    Rates of enzyme-controlled reactions ofen depend on the concentrations of substrate and enzyme molecules. Negative-feedback controls the rate the product is generated.
  75. Gene expression
    • gene silencing by DNA methylation-epigenetics
    • post-transcriptional gene silencing by small interfering RNAs
  76. Factors that affect enzyme function:
    • pH
    • Temperature
  77. Factors that effect bone growth and developemnt
    • Nutrition- vitamins
    • Nutrition- minerals
    • Hormones
    • -growth
    • -calcitonin
    • -sex
    • -parathyroid
    • -thyroid
    • Exercise
    • Aging
  78. Importance of proteins
    • nearly all enzymes are proteins
    • structural components of the cell such as collagen and elastin
    • ion channels in the plasma membrane
    • receptors for hormones and neurotransmitters
    • contractile elements of muscle such as actin and myosin
    • antibodies
  79. A gene consists of:
    • Coding region
    • Regulatory regions
  80. DNA in a cell is found:
    in the chromosomes of the nucleus
  81. DNA vs RNA
    • A DNA molecule consists of 2 strands
    • A RNA molecule consists of 1 strand
  82. DNA
    • the 2 strands of DNA twist around each other to form a stisted ladder or double helix. 
    • the uprights consist of alternating sugar and phosphate groups
    • the rungs consist of paired nitrogenous bases, one form each strand and are held together by hydrogen bonds
    • A-T
    • G-C
  83. Types of RNA
    • Messenger- mRNA
    • Ribosomal- rRNA
    • Transfer- tRNA
    • U instead of T
  84. Transcription
    the copying process of a nucleotide sequence
  85. Translation requires
    • Messenger RNA
    • Ribosomes
    • Transfer RNAs (one for each amino acid)
    • Amino acids
    • ATP to drive the process
  86. Why DNA is replicated:
    During interphase, the DNA inherited from the parent cell must be replicated so that when the cell divides again, a faithful copy can be passed on to each of the two daughter cells.
  87. Why a chromosome appears as a doubled structure:
    Th chromatids are pulled apart at anaphase, after which they are called chromosomes again.
  88. Mutation of DNA (consequences):
    • incorrect pairing of bases during DNA replication
    • insertions of extra bases or deletion of a base or bases during replication
    • expansion in numbers of "triplet or trinucleotide repeats
    • whole sections of DNA may be deleted, transposed or other parts reversed or inserted into other chromosomes
  89. Gene therapy
    DNA carrying the normal gene is incorporated into the patient's cells by: engineered viruses or liposomes
  90. Proteoglycans
    hold water and maintain tissue hydration
  91. Simple Squamous Epithelium
    • thin and flattened, substances diffuse easily through them
    • Lines the lungs and interiors of blood vessels
  92. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
    • single layer of cube-shaped cells
    • function: secretion and absorption
    • found: kidney tubules, lines ducts of various glands
  93. Simple Columnar Epithelium
    • thicker than cuboidal
    • found: gut and uterus
    • function: provide protection for underlying tissue, secretion and absorption
  94. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
    • nuclei at different levels, looks stratified
    • lines passages of respiraory tubes (cilia present)
  95. Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    • protective
    • found: mouth, throat, vagina, anal canal
  96. Transitional Epithelium
    • Stretchable
    • found: urinary bladder
  97. Glandular Epithelium
    • (inside) endocrine glands secrete hormones
    • (outside) exocrine glands secrete into the surface
  98. Merocrine glands
    • serous merocrine-watery secretions
    • mucous merocrine- thick secretions
  99. Holocrine glands
    apocrine gland (sweat gland)- hair follicles in the skin
  100. Functions of connective tissue:
    • binds structures together
    • supports and protects
    • serves as a framework
    • fills up space
    • stores fat
    • in some places, generates blood cells
    • protects against infection
    • helps repair tissue damage
  101. Cell types found in connective tissue:
    • Fibroblasts: produce fibers
    • Macrophages: phagocytize cellular debris
    • Mast cells: produce substances important to signalling other cells and chemicals
    • White blood cells: numbers increase during inflammation following infection by pathogens
    • Chondrocytes and osteocytes: specialized cells found in bone
  102. Fiber in connective tissue:
    • Collagenous fibers: white fibers composed of collagen
    • Elastic fibers: yellow fibers composed of elastin and fibrillin
  103. Ground substance
    gel-like material composed of proteoglycans
  104. Loose Connective Tissue
    • composed of callogenous and elastic fibers
    • found surrounding blood vessels, nerves, muscle fibers, muscle groups and binding skin to underlying muscles
    • uses flexibility and strengh
  105. Adipose Tissue
    • contains cells called adipocytes
    • found below the skin, around mnay organs (hear and kidney), around the eyes, and between joints
    • stores fat, fills space, cushions and holds organs in place, acts as a shock absorber, insulates, and ies shape to the body surfaces
    • the nucleus is pushed to the side as the amount of fat inceases, and tissue takes on a characteristic foamy appearance
  106. Dense Regular Connective Tissue
    • composed of callogen fibers that are densely packed and arranged parallel to the direction of the force with few elastin fibers
    • forms tendons (muscle to bone), ligaments (bone to bone) and aponeuroses (sheet like tendons connecting muscle to muscle or bone)
    • poor blood supply making healing process slow
    • Strength in one direction
  107. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
    • composed of callogen fibers that are densely packed and interwoven with few elastin fibers
    • provides strength in all directions
    • found in the dermis of skin, sheaths covering muscles, nerves and in the adventitia of blood vessels, also forms capsules covering organs, joints and making up the sclera of the eye and membrane coering cartilage and bone
    • limited blood supply making the healing process very slow
  108. Elastic Connective Tissue
    • composed of elastin arranged parallel or irregular branching patters with few callogencan be stretched out about one and a half times its size, and can return to its original length by elastic recoil
    • found in the walls of arteries, trachea and lngs, larynx, and between adjacent vertebrae 
  109. Reticular Connective Tissue
    • composed of thin collagen fibers
    • provides a supporting framework for the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes.
  110. Cartilage
    • avascular (contains no blood vessels) 
    • slow to heal
    • contains callogen and elastic fibers, produced by chondrocytes that occur singularly or in groups within cavities in the cartilage matrix called lacunae
  111. Hayaline cartilage
    • found at the end of bones, in the nose, larynx, trachea, ribs and respiratory tubes
    • composed of a matrix containing callogenous fibrs
    • most common causes no friction between bones
  112. Elastic cartilage
    • contains elastic fibers
    • found in the larynx and ear flaps
  113. Fibrocartilage
    • tensile strenth, weight-bearing properties, and is resistant to stretch and compression
    • many visible collagenous fibers
    • found in areas of the body where it can act as a shock absorber and found between the vertebrae and in joints
  114. Bones
    • has tensile strength and resistance to compression.
    • serves for support and protection (ribs and skull) 
    • long bones form levers muscles can act on
    • the unit of compact bone is the osteon
  115. Skeletal Muscle
    • many nuclei
    • voluntary
    • striation
  116. Smooth muscle
    • no striations
    • 1 nucleus
    • contract involuntary
  117. Cardiac muscle
    • striated
    • 1 nucleus
    • involuntary and spontaneous
  118. Epithelial membranes
    • Mucous: line all structures that open to the outside of your body (reproductive tract)
    • Serous: line body cavities that do not open to the exterior (thorax, abdomen)
    • Cutaneous: an organ of the integumentary system (skin)
  119. Five Physiological Functions of the skin
    • Protection
    • Regulation of body temperature
    • Excretion
    • Sensation
    • Synthesis of vitamin D

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