Phytopathology 1

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Phytopathology 1
2012-09-18 19:13:01

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  1. Define Phytopathology
  2. What percentage of crop yield is lost due to disease?
    How much does this cost?
    14%, $220bil/year
  3. Define Commensalism
  4. Define Synergism
    +/+ benefited but not necessary
  5. Define Mutualism
    +/+ required
  6. Define Neutralism
    No direct effect on either organism
  7. Define Amensalism
    -/O one inhibits the other
  8. Define Competition
  9. Define Predation
    +/- predator eats whole organism(large scale)
  10. Define Parasitism
    +/- Parasite feeds from organism (small scale)
  11. Define a Parasite vs. a Pathogen
    • Parasite- Derives nutrients from host, may or may not cause harm
    • Pathogen- Agent that causes disease
  12. Define Disease
    • a physiological malfunction
    • a continuous state
    • many causes
    • shows symptoms
  13. define disease vs. damage
    • damage- short term, mechanical(insect feeding, wind, hail)
    • disease- long-term, disturbance of plant metabollism, caused by parasites or suboptimal conditions
  14. Infectious disease
    biotic pathogens including organisms and bioligical molecules
  15. non-infectious disease
    abiotic or genetic nutrient deficiency, toxicity, genetic abborations
  16. what are the 3 components of the disease triangle
    • susceptible host
    • condusive environment
    • pathogen
  17. define biotroph
    • requires a living host to grow and reproduce
    • do not compte in environment
    • obligate parasites
    • most cannot be grown in pure culture
  18. Semi biotrophs
    • primarily on living hosts
    • also capable of living in dead host or organic matter
    • 2 stage life cycle
  19. Necrotrophs
    primarily on dead organic matter, also able to colonize
  20. soil inhabitants
    • grow and reproduce in soil
    • good competator
  21. soil survivor
    • survive in soil
    • poor competators
  22. What is the Anna Karenina Principle?
    Many factors must be in place for a system to work, if one factor is missing the system wont work
  23. what percentage of plant problems are abiotic?
  24. define diagnosis vs. proof
    • diagnosis- based on associations, and confidence levels vary
    • proof- when koch's postulates are met