Science Glossary

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robinfuller
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171772
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Science Glossary
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2012-09-21 22:59:06
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  1. Acetylcholine (ACH)
    chemical transmitter substance released by some nerve endings.
  2. Acid
    a compound that yields H+ ions in solution with the concentration of H+ exceeding that of OH-
  3. acid base balance
    situation in which the pH of the blood is maintained between  7.35 - 7.45
  4. action potential
    a large transient depolarization event, including  polarity reversal, that is conducted along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve fiber.
  5. active transport
    membrane transport proces for which ATP is provided. ie endocytosis, and solute pumping.
  6. adaption
    receive, interpret, and respond to internal and external stimuli via the nervous system
  7. adhesion
    molecular attraction between dissimilar molecules. 
  8. aerobic
    in the presence of oxygen
  9. Afferent nerve
    nerve that contains processes of sensory neurons and carries impulses to the central nervous system.
  10. Agglutination
    clumping of foreign cells.
  11. Agonist
    muscle that bears major responsibility for affecting a particular movement; a prime mover.
  12. Alle
    any of the alternative forms of a gene
  13. allergy
    overzealous immune response to an otherwise harmless antigen.
  14. Anabolism
    energy requiring building phase of metabolism that simpler substances are combine to make more complex substances.
  15. Anaerobic
    with out the presence of oxygen.
  16. Anion
    an atom or molecule with a negative charge
  17. Antibody
    a protein molecule that is released by a plasma cell and binds of an antigen
  18. Articulation
    aka joint the junction of 2 or more bones.
  19. Asexual reproduction
    method of reproducing a new organism from only one parent by a means of mitosis
  20. Atom
    the smallest amount of an element, a nucleus contains proton and neutrons surrounded by electrons.
  21. Atomic number
    the number of protons  in the nucleus of a chemical element.
  22. Avogados Law
    equal volumes of gas contain the same amount of molecules
  23. Base
    a compound that yields OH- ions in a solution or a solution with a concentration of OH- ions.
  24. Blood Pressure
    force exerted by blood against an unit area of the blood vessel walls. differences in blood pressure between different areas of the circulation provide the driving force for blood circulation
  25. Boiling point
    the temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas state
  26. Bowman's capsule
    a network of capillaries encased in a membrane in the kidney for the purpose of filtration.
  27. Boyle's Law
    the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure
  28. Capillary action
    the rising liquid in a small tube because of adhesive and cohesive forces
  29. Catalyst
    a chemical that changes the rate of a chemical reaction with out itself being chemically altered.
  30. circulation
    transporting oxygen and other nutrients to the tissues via the cardiovascular system
  31. Compound
    a substance formed by the chemical combination of 2 or more elements.
  32. Covalent bond
    atoms linked together by sharing valence electrons
  33. Ecosystem
    the interaction of living organism in their environment.
  34. Electrolyte
    an ionic substance that has high electrical conductivity
  35. Electron
    a light subatomic particle with a negative charge, found in orbitals around the nucleus.
  36. Elimination
    removing metabolic wastes from the body via renal system
  37. Endocrine glands
    ductless glands that empty their hormonal products directly into the blood
  38. Endocrine system
    body system that includes internal organs that secrete hormones
  39. Energy
    the concept of motion or heat
  40. Enzyme
    protein catalyst, chemical that changes the rate of a chemical reaction in living tissue with out itself being chemically altered.
  41. Equilibrium
    a balanced condition resulting from two opposing reactions.
  42. Erythrocytes
    RBC's
  43. Fermentation
    the release of energy from sugar without the use of oxygen; anaerobic respiration.
  44. Freezing point
    the temperature at which a liquid changed to a solid.
  45. Genetic code
    the rules by which the base sequence of a DNA gene is translated into a protein structure.
  46. Genome
    The complete set of chromosomes derived from one parent, the haploid genome or the two sets of chromosomes, the diploid genome
  47. Genotype
    ones genetic makeup or genes
  48. Golgi apparatus
    membranous system close to the cell nucleus that packaged protein secretions for export, packaging enzyme into lysosomes for cellular use, and modifies proteins destined to become part of cellular membranes.
  49. Gray matter
    neural tissue of the brain and spinal cord that contains nerve-cell bodies as well as nerve fibers. is brownish gray in color.
  50. Hemoglobin
    oxygen-tranporting component of RBC
  51. Homeostasis
    ability of cell to regulate a stable internal environments by controlling the passage of fluids in and out of the cell.
  52. Hormones
    steroidal or amino acid bases molecules released to the blood that act as chemical messenger to regulate specific body functions
  53. Hypertension
    High BP
  54. hypertonic solution
    solution having a lower water concentration that a solution that it is compared to 
  55. immune system
    a functional system whose components attack foreign substances and prevent their entry into the body.
  56. Inflammation
    a non specific defensive response of the body to tissue injury, including dilation of blood vessels and an increase in vessel permeability, increased redness, heat, swelling and pain.
  57. Ion
    an atom with an electrical charge due to gain or loss of electrons
  58. Ionization
    adding or subtracting electrons from an atom; alternatively the dissociation of a solute.
  59. Isomers
    several molecules with the same composition but different structures.
  60. Isotonic solution
    a solution with a concentration of non penetrating solutes that equal the found in the reference cell.
  61. Isotope
    a variation of an element that is characterized by a different number of neutron in the nucleus.
  62. Krebs cycle
    aerobic metabolic pathway occurring with in the mitochondria, food metabolite are oxidized and CO2 is liberated and coenzymes are reduced.
  63. Lymphatic system
    a complex system of thin walled vessels similar to blood capillaries. which serve to collect lymph fluid from tissues and organs and transports the fluid to venous circulation
  64. Malignant
    life threatening, pertains to neoplasm that spreads and lead to death. i.e. cancer
  65. Mast cells
    immune cells that function to detect foreign substances and initiate local inflammatory response against them.
  66. Mitosis
    process of cell duplication, two daughter cells receive exactly the same nuclear material as the original cell.
  67. Molarity
    the number of moles of solute in one liter of solution
  68. Mole
    an amount of substance equal in grams to teh sum of the atomic weight.
  69. Molecule
    a group of atoms lined together with covalent bonds
  70. Motor neurons
    special nerve cells that transmit impulses to the muscle.
  71. mucous membranes
    membrane that form the lining of body cavities open to the exterior i.e. digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts.
  72. Nephron
    structural and functional unit of the kidney, consist of the glomerulus and the renal tubule
  73. Neutralization
    the chemical reaction of and acid and a base to yeild salt and water
  74. Neutron
    a heavy subatomic particle with zero charge. Found in the nucleus.
  75. Nucleus
    the core of an atom, contains protons and neutrons.
  76. Nutrition
    taking in and breaking down nutrients to be used by metabolism via the digestive system.
  77. Ophthalmic
    pertaining to the eye 
  78. Optic
    pertaining to the eye or vision
  79. Orbital
    a classification of the energy level occupied by electrons indicating the probable location of the electrons
  80. Organ
    a part of the body formed from 2 or more tissue types that are adapted to carry out a specific function i.e. the stomach
  81. Organ system
    a group of organs that work together to perform a vital body function. i.e. the nervous system.
  82. Organic
    refers to compounds based on carbon.
  83. Osmosis
    movement of water through a semipermeable membrane from an area of greater water concentration to an area of lesser water concentration
  84. Oxidation
    a reaction involving the loss of electrons by an element.
  85. Oxygenation
    taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide via the respiratory system.
  86. pathogen
    disease causing microorganism 
  87. Peripheral Nervous System
    portion of the nervous system consisting of the nerves and ganglia that lie outside of the brain and spinal cord
  88. Perisalsis
    wavelike contractions of muscle in tubular organs. the motion that forces food thought he digestive tract.
  89. Permeability
    that property of membranes that permits passage of molecules and ions
  90. pH
    a number describing the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
  91. Polymer
    a large molecule formed by many small molecules linked together in a chainlike fashion
  92. Potential energy
    stored or inactive energy
  93. Pressure Gradient
    differences in hydrostatic pressure that drives filtration
  94. Proton
    a heavy subatomic particle with a positive charge, found in the nucleus.
  95. Radioactivity
    the emission of subatomic particles from a nucleus. 
  96. Recessive Traits
    a trait due to a particular allele that doesn't manifest itself in the presence of other alleles that generate traits dominant to it. must be present in the double to be expresses.
  97. Reducation
    the reaction involving the gain of electrons by an element
  98. Regeneration
    replacement of destroyed tissue with the same kind of tissue.
  99. Regulation
    hormonal control of bodily functions via the endocrine system.
  100. Semipermeable membrane
    a membrane that selectively allows material to pass through
  101. Sensory neauron
    special nerve cells that transmit impulses from a stimulus to a receptor.
  102. Sex linked inheritance
    • inherited traits determined by genes on the sex chromosomes.
    • X linked genes are passed from mother to son.
    • Y linked traits are passed from father to son.
  103. Shell
    a set of electron orbitals with the same principal quantum number
  104. Solubility
    the upper limit to the concentration of a solute
  105. Solute
    the substance that dissolves in a solution
  106. Solvent
    the host substance of dominant abundance in a solution
  107. Sublimination
    the transformation of a solid directly into a gas with out intervening liquid state 
  108. Substrate
    substances in which an enzyme operates
  109. Tropism
    movement of plants in response to stimuli.
  110. Valence
    a signed integer describing the combining power of an atom as a real or hypothetical charge
  111. Ventrally
    in front, near the bottom
  112. Vital capacity
    maximum volume of air inhaled or exhaled during forced breathe.
  113. Biological Classification
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  114. Anatomy Taxonomy
    • Organism
    • Organ System
    • Tissue
    • Cells
    • Molecules
    • Atoms
  115. Mass number
    total number of protons and neutrons
  116. atomic number
    # of protons
  117. a neutral atom will have the same number of...
    protons and electrons
  118. Electronegativity
    • -the combination with the smallest difference is considered the least polar.
    • -most covalent=least polar
  119. The punnet square
    The punnet square is useful for predicting what offspring are possible and what proportion of the offspring will have each genotype if there is a very large # of offspring
  120. what are the lines of defense against mutations during replication?
    • 1) proofreading abilities of DNA polymerase
    • 2) mismatch repair
    • 3) excision repair
  121. kinetic energy
    KE=1/2 mv2
  122. Gastrulation
    the stage which individual tissue layers begin to form
  123. Vaccines
    form of active immunity
  124. alkane
    alkene
    alkyne
    CnH2n+2

    CnH2n

    • CnH2n-2
  125. Translation
    the process by which the message is relayed from RNA to ribosomes
  126. Transcription
    Message from DNA is translated in to RNA
  127. Where does the break down of fats, carbs, and proteins happen?
    • fat- small intestine
    • carb - mouth
    • protein- stomach
  128. Dependent Variable
    • the output or effect
    • or it is tested to see the effect
  129. Independent Variable
    • represents the inputs or causes
    • or tested to see if they are the cause.
  130. Calculate heat removal
    H = -M L

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