chemical transmitter substance released by some nerve endings.
a compound that yields H+ ions in solution with the concentration of H+ exceeding that of OH-
acid base balance
situation in which the pH of the blood is maintained between 7.35 - 7.45
a large transient depolarization event, including polarity reversal, that is conducted along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve fiber.
membrane transport proces for which ATP is provided. ie endocytosis, and solute pumping.
receive, interpret, and respond to internal and external stimuli via the nervous system
molecular attraction between dissimilar molecules.
in the presence of oxygen
nerve that contains processes of sensory neurons and carries impulses to the central nervous system.
clumping of foreign cells.
muscle that bears major responsibility for affecting a particular movement; a prime mover.
any of the alternative forms of a gene
overzealous immune response to an otherwise harmless antigen.
energy requiring building phase of metabolism that simpler substances are combine to make more complex substances.
with out the presence of oxygen.
an atom or molecule with a negative charge
a protein molecule that is released by a plasma cell and binds of an antigen
aka joint the junction of 2 or more bones.
method of reproducing a new organism from only one parent by a means of mitosis
the smallest amount of an element, a nucleus contains proton and neutrons surrounded by electrons.
the number of protons in the nucleus of a chemical element.
equal volumes of gas contain the same amount of molecules
a compound that yields OH- ions in a solution or a solution with a concentration of OH- ions.
force exerted by blood against an unit area of the blood vessel walls. differences in blood pressure between different areas of the circulation provide the driving force for blood circulation
the temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas state
a network of capillaries encased in a membrane in the kidney for the purpose of filtration.
the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure
the rising liquid in a small tube because of adhesive and cohesive forces
a chemical that changes the rate of a chemical reaction with out itself being chemically altered.
transporting oxygen and other nutrients to the tissues via the cardiovascular system
a substance formed by the chemical combination of 2 or more elements.
atoms linked together by sharing valence electrons
the interaction of living organism in their environment.
an ionic substance that has high electrical conductivity
a light subatomic particle with a negative charge, found in orbitals around the nucleus.
removing metabolic wastes from the body via renal system
ductless glands that empty their hormonal products directly into the blood
body system that includes internal organs that secrete hormones
the concept of motion or heat
protein catalyst, chemical that changes the rate of a chemical reaction in living tissue with out itself being chemically altered.
a balanced condition resulting from two opposing reactions.
the release of energy from sugar without the use of oxygen; anaerobic respiration.
the temperature at which a liquid changed to a solid.
the rules by which the base sequence of a DNA gene is translated into a protein structure.
The complete set of chromosomes derived from one parent, the haploid genome or the two sets of chromosomes, the diploid genome
ones genetic makeup or genes
membranous system close to the cell nucleus that packaged protein secretions for export, packaging enzyme into lysosomes for cellular use, and modifies proteins destined to become part of cellular membranes.
neural tissue of the brain and spinal cord that contains nerve-cell bodies as well as nerve fibers. is brownish gray in color.
oxygen-tranporting component of RBC
ability of cell to regulate a stable internal environments by controlling the passage of fluids in and out of the cell.
steroidal or amino acid bases molecules released to the blood that act as chemical messenger to regulate specific body functions
solution having a lower water concentration that a solution that it is compared to
a functional system whose components attack foreign substances and prevent their entry into the body.
a non specific defensive response of the body to tissue injury, including dilation of blood vessels and an increase in vessel permeability, increased redness, heat, swelling and pain.
an atom with an electrical charge due to gain or loss of electrons
adding or subtracting electrons from an atom; alternatively the dissociation of a solute.
several molecules with the same composition but different structures.
a solution with a concentration of non penetrating solutes that equal the found in the reference cell.
a variation of an element that is characterized by a different number of neutron in the nucleus.
aerobic metabolic pathway occurring with in the mitochondria, food metabolite are oxidized and CO2 is liberated and coenzymes are reduced.
a complex system of thin walled vessels similar to blood capillaries. which serve to collect lymph fluid from tissues and organs and transports the fluid to venous circulation
life threatening, pertains to neoplasm that spreads and lead to death. i.e. cancer
immune cells that function to detect foreign substances and initiate local inflammatory response against them.
process of cell duplication, two daughter cells receive exactly the same nuclear material as the original cell.
the number of moles of solute in one liter of solution
an amount of substance equal in grams to teh sum of the atomic weight.
a group of atoms lined together with covalent bonds
special nerve cells that transmit impulses to the muscle.
membrane that form the lining of body cavities open to the exterior i.e. digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts.
structural and functional unit of the kidney, consist of the glomerulus and the renal tubule
the chemical reaction of and acid and a base to yeild salt and water
a heavy subatomic particle with zero charge. Found in the nucleus.
the core of an atom, contains protons and neutrons.
taking in and breaking down nutrients to be used by metabolism via the digestive system.
pertaining to the eye
pertaining to the eye or vision
a classification of the energy level occupied by electrons indicating the probable location of the electrons
a part of the body formed from 2 or more tissue types that are adapted to carry out a specific function i.e. the stomach
a group of organs that work together to perform a vital body function. i.e. the nervous system.
refers to compounds based on carbon.
movement of water through a semipermeable membrane from an area of greater water concentration to an area of lesser water concentration
a reaction involving the loss of electrons by an element.
taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide via the respiratory system.
disease causing microorganism
Peripheral Nervous System
portion of the nervous system consisting of the nerves and ganglia that lie outside of the brain and spinal cord
wavelike contractions of muscle in tubular organs. the motion that forces food thought he digestive tract.
that property of membranes that permits passage of molecules and ions
a number describing the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
a large molecule formed by many small molecules linked together in a chainlike fashion
stored or inactive energy
differences in hydrostatic pressure that drives filtration
a heavy subatomic particle with a positive charge, found in the nucleus.
the emission of subatomic particles from a nucleus.
a trait due to a particular allele that doesn't manifest itself in the presence of other alleles that generate traits dominant to it. must be present in the double to be expresses.
the reaction involving the gain of electrons by an element
replacement of destroyed tissue with the same kind of tissue.
hormonal control of bodily functions via the endocrine system.
a membrane that selectively allows material to pass through
special nerve cells that transmit impulses from a stimulus to a receptor.
Sex linked inheritance
inherited traits determined by genes on the sex chromosomes.
X linked genes are passed from mother to son.
Y linked traits are passed from father to son.
a set of electron orbitals with the same principal quantum number
the upper limit to the concentration of a solute
the substance that dissolves in a solution
the host substance of dominant abundance in a solution
the transformation of a solid directly into a gas with out intervening liquid state
substances in which an enzyme operates
movement of plants in response to stimuli.
a signed integer describing the combining power of an atom as a real or hypothetical charge
in front, near the bottom
maximum volume of air inhaled or exhaled during forced breathe.
total number of protons and neutrons
# of protons
a neutral atom will have the same number of...
protons and electrons
-the combination with the smallest difference is considered the least polar.
-most covalent=least polar
The punnet square
The punnet square is useful for predicting what offspring are possible and what proportion of the offspring will have each genotype if there is a very large # of offspring
what are the lines of defense against mutations during replication?
1) proofreading abilities of DNA polymerase
2) mismatch repair
3) excision repair
the stage which individual tissue layers begin to form
form of active immunity
the process by which the message is relayed from RNA to ribosomes
Message from DNA is translated in to RNA
Where does the break down of fats, carbs, and proteins happen?