Blood Chemistry Testing Cont.
Card Set Information
Blood Chemistry Testing Cont.
Lab Tech ll
Lab Tech ll
How do we test for total protein?
refractometer or machine
What does the refractometer actually test for?
What kind of method do the machines use to test for total protein?
Which will have a higher total protein, plasma or serum? Why?
the serum is lower because the clotting factors containing protein are gone
Where is albumin?
in the liver
Where is globulin?
in the liver and plasma cells
What is A:G ratio?
What is the A:G ratio in dogs and horses?
greater than 1
What is the A:G ratio in cats and cattles?
less than 1
Albumin comprises of _____ of total protein.
35 - 50%
What is hypoproteinemia due to?
When there is hypoproteinemia what else will you have?
What is ascites?
increase fluid in the abdomen
What does electrophoresis do?
breaks protein down into various fractions
What fractions does electrophoresis break the proteins down into?
What are gamma globulins?
What types of animals do we test fibrinogen in?
Why do we test fibrinogen?
to determine infection or neoplasia
What kind of sample do we use to test fibrinogen?
can't use serum because fibrinogen is not in serum
What kind of anticoagulant do we need to use for testing for fibrinogen?
EDTA and not heparin because heparin may falsely lower the results
How do we run the fibrinogen test?
collect blood in a hematocrit tube
spin down the tubes
read the TP of one of the tubes
heat th eother tube in warm water for 3 mintues
spin down the heated tubes
read the TP of the heated tube
What are the two categories of electrolytes?
anions (-) and cations (+)
What are the different electrolytes?
What kind of electrolye is sodium?
What kind of electrolyte is chloride?
What kind of electrolyte is potassium?
What two electrolytes do we usually see together?
sodium and chloride
Sodium is the major ________ cation
What is sodium in charge of?
osmotic balance and water distribution throughout the body
What is hypernatremia and what does it often indicate?
increased sodium level often an indication of dehydration
What happens when there is hypoatremia?
can't concentrate urine
What tubes should we avoid when testing for sodium?
sodium-containing anticoagulants (EDTA and sodium heparin)
What is the number one extracellular anion?
What is chloride responsible for?
What is the major intercellular cation?
Potassium is needed for what types of normal functions?
muscle, heart, and nerve contractions
Why do we need to be careful when administering potassium? What is the safest way to administer potassium and why?
can cause death
give PO so that the GI tract can regulate what is being absorbed and what is being disposed of
What is hyperkalemia?
increase in potassium
What causes hyperkalemia?
cellular damage or necrosis
How can we treat hyperkalemia?
What does an overdose of potassium look like?
a heart attack
What is hypokalemia?
decrease in potassium
What are some causes of hypokalemia?
vomiting and diarrhea
How can we treat hypokalemia?
fluid therapy with potassium added to the bag
What are the clinical signs of hypokalemia?
weakness and muscle flaccidity
Which one will we see more in practice, hypokalemia or hyperkalemia?
What kind of sample do we need to use when testing potassium levels?
plasma preferred because platelets may release potassium during the clotting process
What type of anticoagulants do we need to avoid when testing potassium
avoid anticoagulants that contain potassium
What will happen to potassium levels if there is hemolysis?
will cause a false increase in potassium
What kind of blood gases do we test for?
Which blood gases require the sample for arterial blood and which blood gases can be run with venous blood?
: pO2, pCO2
Which tests run blood gases?
Where does acid base regulation take place in the body?
What are blood gases useful in testing for?
diagnose and treat metabolic acidosis
Anything that increases CO2 will cause an animal to be _____.
Metabolic acidosis is common with _____.
chronic diarrhea and chronic respiratory depression
What is the second most common extracellular anion?
What does bicarbonate do?
What is the best sample for testing blood gases?
arterial blood and plasma
How do we preserve a blood sample to test for blood gases and why?
chill in ice water to prevent RBC glycolysis changing the pH
Name the minerals.
When do we see an elevated phosphorous?
in renal disease
When does magnesium decrease?
in grass tetany in cattle
_____ of calcium is found in bones.
_____ of calcium does all the dynamic work.
found in blood
What does the 1% of calcium do in the blood?
ion transfer across membranes
What is calcium inversely proportional to?
What regulates calcium in the body?
parathormone (comes from the parathyroid on the thyroid gland)
What is a decrease in calcium often due to?
What could an increase in calcium be due to?
dietary or disease
What does calcium correct for?
Ca - alb + 3.5
What is hypercalcemia?
too much calcium
What can hypercalcemia cause?
renal failure due to excess precipitation out into the soft tissue
What is hypocalcemia?
decrease in calcium
What can hypocalcemia cause?
puerperal tetany, eclampsia
What causes hypocalcemia?
calcium isn't moving fast enough from the bone to the blood
What can of sample do we need when we are testing calcium levels
no EDTA or oxalate tubes
Where is inorganic phosophorous?
80% in bones
What does the other 20% of inorganic phosphorous do?
energy storage, release, and transfer
nucleic acids, phospholipids
Where is organic phosphorous found?
What parts of blood are inorganic phosphorous found?
plasma and serum
What does hemolysis do to phosphorous?
What is hyperphosphatemia?
increase in phosphorous levels
What does hyperphosphatemia do to calcium levels?
decreases them and causes hypocalcemia
What can cause hyperphosphatemia?
calcium deficient diets
Where is magnesium in the body?
in all body tissue
50% in bones
What does magnesium do?
production and decomposition of Ach
The Mg:Ca ratio is important to what?
What types of animals do we see hypomagnesemia in?
What type of coagulant should we use when collecting blood to test for magnesium levels?
What does hemolysis do to magnesium?
What are some other minerals that require specific tests?