Blood Chemistry Testing Cont.

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kris10leejmu
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171788
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Blood Chemistry Testing Cont.
Updated:
2012-09-18 20:43:30
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Lab Tech ll
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Lab Tech ll
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  1. How do we test for total protein?
    refractometer or machine
  2. What does the refractometer actually test for?
    total solids
  3. What kind of method do the machines use to test for total protein?
    biuret method
  4. Which will have a higher total protein, plasma or serum?  Why?
    • plasma
    • the serum is lower because the clotting factors containing protein are gone
  5. Where is albumin?
    in the liver
  6. Where is globulin?
    in the liver and plasma cells
  7. What is A:G ratio?
    albumin:globulin ratio
  8. What is the A:G ratio in dogs and horses?
    greater than 1
  9. What is the A:G ratio in cats and cattles?
    less than 1
  10. Albumin comprises of _____ of total protein.
    35 - 50%
  11. What is hypoproteinemia due to?
    hypoalbuminemia
  12. When there is hypoproteinemia what else will you have?
    ascites
  13. What is ascites?
    increase fluid in the abdomen
  14. What does electrophoresis do?
    breaks protein down into various fractions
  15. What fractions does electrophoresis break the proteins down into?
    • albumin
    • alpha
    • beta
    • gamma globulins
  16. What are gamma globulins?
    antibodies
  17. What types of animals do we test fibrinogen in?
    large animals
  18. Why do we test fibrinogen?
    to determine infection or neoplasia
  19. What kind of sample do we use to test fibrinogen?
    • plasma
    • can't use serum because fibrinogen is not in serum
  20. What kind of anticoagulant do we need to use for testing for fibrinogen?
    EDTA and not heparin because heparin may falsely lower the results
  21. How do we run the fibrinogen test?
    • collect blood in a hematocrit tube
    • spin down the tubes
    • read the TP of one of the tubes
    • heat th eother tube in warm water for 3 mintues
    • spin down the heated tubes
    • read the TP of the heated tube
  22. What are the two categories of electrolytes?
    anions (-) and cations (+)
  23. What are the different electrolytes?
    • sodium
    • chloride
    • potassium
  24. What kind of electrolye is sodium?
    cation
  25. What kind of electrolyte is chloride?
    anion
  26. What kind of electrolyte is potassium?
    cation
  27. What two electrolytes do we usually see together?
    sodium and chloride
  28. Sodium is the major ________ cation 
    interstitial/extracellular
  29. What is sodium in charge of?
    osmotic balance and water distribution throughout the body
  30. What is hypernatremia and what does it often indicate?
    increased sodium level often an indication of dehydration
  31. What happens when there is hypoatremia?
    can't concentrate urine
  32. What tubes should we avoid when testing for sodium?
    sodium-containing anticoagulants (EDTA and sodium heparin)
  33. What is the number one extracellular anion?
    chloride
  34. What is chloride responsible for?
    • water distribution
    • osmotic pressure
  35. What is the major intercellular cation?
    potassium
  36. Potassium is needed for what types of normal functions?
    • muscle, heart, and nerve contractions
    • CHO metabolism
  37. Why do we need to be careful when administering potassium?  What is the safest way to administer potassium and why?
    • can cause death
    • give PO so that the GI tract can regulate what is being absorbed and what is being disposed of
  38. What is hyperkalemia?
    increase in potassium
  39. What causes hyperkalemia?
    • acidosis
    • cellular damage or necrosis
    • postrenal obstruction
    • hemolysis
  40. How can we treat hyperkalemia?
    fluid therapy
  41. What does an overdose of potassium look like?
    a heart attack
  42. What is hypokalemia?
    decrease in potassium
  43. What are some causes of hypokalemia?
    • inappetance
    • renal loss
    • alkalosis
    • vomiting and diarrhea
  44. How can we treat hypokalemia?
    fluid therapy with potassium added to the bag
  45. What are the clinical signs of hypokalemia?
    weakness and muscle flaccidity
  46. Which one will we see more in practice, hypokalemia or hyperkalemia?
    hypokalemia
  47. What kind of sample do we need to use when testing potassium levels?
    plasma preferred because platelets may release potassium during the clotting process
  48. What type of anticoagulants do we need to avoid when testing potassium
    avoid anticoagulants that contain potassium
  49. What will happen to potassium levels if there is hemolysis?
    will cause a false increase in potassium
  50. What kind of blood gases do we test for?
    • pO2
    • pCO2
    • HCO3
  51. Which blood gases require the sample for arterial blood and which blood gases can be run with venous blood?
    • arterial blood:  pO2, pCO2
    • venous blood:  HCO3
  52. Which tests run blood gases?
    • VetStat
    • I-Stat
  53. Where does acid base regulation take place in the body?
    • respiratory tract
    • kidneys
  54. What are blood gases useful in testing for?
    diagnose and treat metabolic acidosis
  55. Anything that increases CO2 will cause an animal to be _____.
    acidosis
  56. Metabolic acidosis is common with _____.
    chronic diarrhea and chronic respiratory depression
  57. What is the second most common extracellular anion?
    bicarbonate
  58. What does bicarbonate do?
    regulates pH
  59. What is the best sample for testing blood gases?
    arterial blood and plasma
  60. How do we preserve a blood sample to test for blood gases and why?
    chill in ice water to prevent RBC glycolysis changing the pH
  61. Name the minerals.
    • phosphorous
    • magnesium
    • calcium
  62. When do we see an elevated phosphorous?
    in renal disease
  63. When does magnesium decrease?
    in grass tetany in cattle
  64. _____ of calcium is found in bones.
    99%
  65. _____ of calcium does all the dynamic work.
    • 1%
    • found in blood
  66. What does the 1% of calcium do in the blood?
    • muscle contraction
    • blood coagulation
    • enzyme activity
    • ion transfer across membranes
  67. What is calcium inversely proportional to?
    phosphorous concentration
  68. What regulates calcium in the body?
    parathormone (comes from the parathyroid on the thyroid gland)
  69. What is a decrease in calcium often due to?
    diet
  70. What could an increase in calcium be due to?
    dietary or disease
  71. What does calcium correct for?
    • albumin
    • Ca - alb + 3.5
  72. What is hypercalcemia?
    too much calcium
  73. What can hypercalcemia cause?
    renal failure due to excess precipitation out into the soft tissue
  74. What is hypocalcemia?
    decrease in calcium
  75. What can hypocalcemia cause?
    • milk fever
    • puerperal tetany, eclampsia
    • dystocia
  76. What causes hypocalcemia?
    calcium isn't moving fast enough from the bone to the blood
  77. What can of sample do we need when we are testing calcium levels
    • plasma
    • no EDTA or oxalate tubes
  78. Where is inorganic phosophorous?
    80% in bones
  79. What does the other 20% of inorganic phosphorous do?
    • energy storage, release, and transfer
    • CHO metabolism
    • buffers
    • nucleic acids, phospholipids
  80. Where is organic phosphorous found?
    RBCs
  81. What parts of blood are inorganic phosphorous found?
    plasma and serum
  82. What does hemolysis do to phosphorous?
    elevates it
  83. What is hyperphosphatemia?
    increase in phosphorous levels
  84. What does hyperphosphatemia do to calcium levels?
    decreases them and causes hypocalcemia
  85. What can cause hyperphosphatemia?
    calcium deficient diets
  86. Where is magnesium in the body?
    • in all body tissue
    • 50% in bones
  87. What does magnesium do?
    production and decomposition of Ach
  88. The Mg:Ca ratio is important to what?
    muscle function
  89. What types of animals do we see hypomagnesemia in?
    ruminants
  90. What type of coagulant should we use when collecting blood to test for magnesium levels?
    heparin
  91. What does hemolysis do to magnesium?
    elevates it
  92. What are some other minerals that require specific tests?
    • lead
    • mercury
    • arsenic
    • thallium

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