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Star-shaped cells found between neurons and blood vessels
Cells that produce a phospholipid myelin sheath around axons of neurons in the central nervous system
The brain's macrophages. They are small cells with few processes. Like macrophages, they may originate from monocytes circulating in the blood.
Like epithelial cells, they line the ventricles of the brain and the central canal in the spinal cord.
Neurons that are involved in conveying sensory information to the central nervous system
Neurons that convey information from one neuron to another neuron.
Neurons that convey motor commands, usually to skeletal muscles.
A slow process which is responsible for carrying soluble proteins synthesized in the cell body down to the axon terminals.
A faster, ATP-requiring process. This process is involved in the transport of organelles (such as synaptic vesicles, mitochondria) through the axon.
Retrograde axonal transport
Transport that can move particles toward the neuronal cell body.
Structure located within the body of the muscle provide data on the changing length of muscle during contraction or when it is stretched.
Golgi tendon organ
Structure located in the tendons that provide data on the tension being developed by the muscle.
a motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it is connected with
Increaseing the number of motor neurons, and therefore motor units activated at any one time, can increase the force of contraction of the muscle.
(applies to a single muscle fiber) A stimulus is either sufficient to cause a maximm contraction, or it is subthreshold and there is no contraction at all.
The nerve tissue of the brain and spinal cord consists of billions of neurons, in close association with non-neuronal cells
How muscles contract: (like oar and rower)
- Resting conditions, the myosin is primed and ready for action
- Attachment of myosin head to actin (=dipping oar in water)
- Power stroke (=rower pulling on oar)
- Detachment and reorientation (=rower raises oar and brings it forward again)
- Preparation and priming for next attachment step
Node of Ranvier
A gap occurring at regular intervals between segments of myelin sheath along a nerve axon
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