Managerial communication

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
171820
Filename:
Managerial communication
Updated:
2012-09-18 22:03:54
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Managerial communication test
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Test 1
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  1. 12 element model
    stimulation, motivation, frame of reference, person a, person b, encoding, decoding, codes, channel (medium), feedback, environment, noise
  2. stimulation
    • can be either external or internal 
    • external i.e. calendar reminder
    • internal i.e. memory is jogged
  3. motivation
    reason for communicating 
  4. frame of reference
    where a person comes from and how it affects thier point of view i.e. background, age, gender, education, personality, attitudes, relationships
  5. encoding
    selecting codes to relay & express our meaning
  6. decoding 
    using codes to interpret meaning
  7. codes-verbal
    • words: oral or written
    • 7% of meaning
  8. codes-tone
    • volume, rate, pitch, emphasis
    • 38% of meaning
  9. codes- nonverbal
    • posture, facial expressions, eye contact, space, touch, appearance
    • 55% of meaning
  10. channel (medium)-oral
    • 1 on 1
    • face to face
    • group 
    • presentations
    • video conference
    • telephone
  11. channel (medium)- written
    • email
    • texting
    • twitter
    • letters
    • memos
    • reports
  12. environment
    organizational culture, climate and phyiscal environment
  13. organizational culture
    what makes an organization unique and gives it personality
  14. organizational climate
    • supportive atmosphere
    • defensive atmosphere
  15. physical environment
    heat, light, comfort, noisefree, age of building, etc
  16. noise
    • anything that is going to interfere with communication
    • -internally
    • -channel
  17. communication
    process of people exchaning ideas and feelings in a commonly understood way
  18. barriers of communication
    purpose, fact/inference confusion, gender, and culture
  19. purpose
    as a result of this communication, my audience will...know, do, feel, etc
  20. factual statements
    • made only after observation
    • limited to what has been observed
    • only made by the observer
    • only about the past or present
    • approach certainty
    • subject to verifiable standards
  21. inferential statements 
    • made at anytime
    • go beyond what was observed
    • made by anyone
    • about anytime, past, present, future
    • involve varying degrees of probability
    • not subject to verifiable statements
  22. 4 barriers to intercultural communication
    • misinterpretation on codes
    • ethnocentrism
    • stereotypes
    • denial of differences
  23. high context cultures
    • relies on not only words but context surrounding words
    • i.e. china & japan
  24. low context cultures
    • relies on language to convey a message
    • i.e. united states
  25. individualistic culture
    • value individual acheivements, ideas, etc
    • i.e. united states
  26. collectivist cultures
    • value putting the good of the group first
    • i.e. china
  27. high power distance
    • formal and hierarchical organizations
    • i.e. united states
  28. low power distance
    • social equality more relaxed toward title and status
    • i.e. canada
  29. uncertainty avoidance-avoid uncertainty
    • rituals, rules, codes of conduct
    • i.e. japan & china
  30. uncertainty avoidance-tolerate uncertainty
    • flexible work environment, risk taking, etc.
    • i.e. united states
  31. time orientation-monochronic
    • value punctuality & efficiency
    • i.e. united states
  32. time orientation-polychronic
    • relaxed about time & punctuality
    • i.e. asian, european, middle eastern countries
  33. hearing
    involuntary physical response to the environment
  34. listening
    process that includes hearing, attending to, understanding, evaluating and responding to spoken and nonverbal messages
  35. set listening goals
    • identify objectives
    • know your listening style
    • build motivation
    • generate energy (getting sleep, eating, etc)
  36. checklist communication
    • Simple message
    • Checklist of items to share
    • Short time to deliver
    • Concrete message
    • Listener understands
    • You have credibility or authority
    • Clear channel
  37. convincing communication
    • Rich meaning 
    • Abstract/vague
    • Listener not trained/experienced
    • Listener not engaged
    • Listener cynical
    • You don’t have high credibility
    • Cluttered, noisy channel
  38. sign
    something that represents something else naturally linked with it
  39. symbol
    a sign with no direct link to the thing it represents
  40. denotative symbols
    • “Let the evidence speak for itself”  (Gil Grissom, CSI)
    • Presenting hard data
    • Concrete object and sign attached to it
    • Nike Swoosh,  McDonald’s arches, your high school logo
    • Accurate and easy to remember
  41. connotative symbols
    • Inaccurate and easily forgotten
    • Meaning varies from person to person
    • Excellent meal
    • Mother
    • Imprecise
    • Senders
    • – need to be aware of impact on listeners
    • Meaning varies among listeners
    • Meaning varies from time to time
  42. kinesics
    • Gestures
    • Body Movements
    • Facial Expressions
    • Eye Contact
  43. vocalics
    • Tone and pitch – how the voice sounds
    • Volume– how loud the voice is
    • Speed– how fast someone is talking
    • Characterizations– laughing, crying
    • Fillers

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