Byzantine Art (part 1)

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felara9614
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171854
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Byzantine Art (part 1)
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2012-09-20 23:22:22
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Byzantine Art (part 1)
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    • Barberini Ivory
    • Era: Byzantine, mid 6th century
    • Techniques:
    • carved in 5 parts, one was lost
    • dynamic twisting posture
    • motif - spear thrusting equestrian statue
    • remnants from the Pagan Roman empire
    • personifications
    •     - bountiful earth
    •     - palm bearing victory
    • power comes from god - two angels holding an image of Christ
    • Christ is carrying a cross in his left hand and blessing Justinian with the other - theocratic state
    • exotic animals (lion, elephant, and tiger) native to Africa and Asia, sights of his conquests
    • Roman soldiers carrying another figure of victory in form of statuette
    • depicts Justinian as the world conqueror
    • riding on a startled horsehorse trampling a figure
    • figures are afraid of him, signifying his power
    • emphasizes his power and rule over the world
    • barbarians seeking clemency, coming with tribute
    • St. Micheal the Archangel
    • Era: Byzantine, early 6th century
    • Techniques
    • made of ivory
    • incised lines
    • body contour through drapery
    • all features are flattened
    • dwarfing the architectural setting
    • persistance of Classical art
    • one of the two panels
    • old style but new subject
    • patron of the church of Hagia Sophia
    • "receive these gifts"
    • cross on orb shows world dominance and the power of Christianity
    • Byzantine emperor would have been on other side
    • fluidity of folds
    • flattened feet sliding over stairs
    • idealized face
    • classical coiffure
    • halo is a shell
    • lower body behind column but his upper body is in front of it
    • spacial amuiguity
    • rejecting 3 dimensional goal of modeled figure firmly on the ground
    • figure seems to float
    • Diptych of Anastatius
    • Era: Byzantine, 517 
    • Techniques:
    • enthroned
    • halo of shells
    • flattened space
    • flattened feet
    • bent knees show that he is seated
    • angels holding an image of Christ
    • gable and columns that look like little sculptures on the side of his throne
    • lions heads with rings in mouths on arms of throne
    • stylized folds of drapery
    • body contour in legs and knees only, not a lot in upper body
    • preparation for games underneath him
    • areial view into arena on the right panel
    • emperor taking on the role of signaling the beginning of the games in an athletic arena
    • mappa, hankerchieft signalling the beginning of the games
    • absolute monarch with divine support


    • Hagia Sophia
    • Artists: Anthemius of Tralles & Isidorus of Miletus
    • Era: Byzantine, 532-537 
    • Location: Constantinople, Turkey
    • Techniques:
    • 40 windows at base of dome - light reflect's off marble and mosaics to dissolves all material subjects and transform everything into a vision - gold chain from heaven - enlarged halo in the church itself
    • cloumner arcades (arches lined up) in the nave and galleries dematerialize the walls
    • massive pendentive dome floating in space supported by four giant arches
    • two rows of colonnades on each side
    • windows on each side
    • external structures to support the dome
    • side domes to help support the large dome
    • curved flowing design of the building
    • huge narthex with many entrances
    • domed basilica - fusing basilica and central plan
    • plain and unpretentious to disguise its scale
    • contrast between plain exterior with extravagant interior
    • setting fit for a solemn liturgy
    • nave was reserved for the clergy
    • sexually separated in the aisles (men) and galleries (women)- earthly image of heaven
    • positive triumph of the Christian faith
    • surmation of Antiquity
    • church of holy wisdom
    • built for Justinian to continue his reign in the east
    • not a mosque - minarettes added later
    • eastern influence
    • designed by a mathematician and a physicist
    • 270ft long x 240ft wide - dome has 108ft diameter - crown (tip of dome) to floor 180ft


    • San Vitale
    • Era: Byzantine, 526-547
    • Location: Ravenna, Italy
    • Techniques
    • polygonal, central plan
    • two concentric octagons
    • not axially aligned - narthex is turned might be based on street plan
    • dome covers an inner octogon
    • angular
    • clerestory lighting
    • central space is defined by 8 large piers that alternate with a curved column exedra pushes out to abularoty
    • 8 leafed floral design
    • 2 story ambulatory
    • corss vaulted choir that gives it more stability
    • choir is right in front of apse
    • everything is covered in marble and mosaic
    • elaborate capitals
    • marble floors, panels and columns
    • mosaics cover ceiling
    • curved and flattened space
    • light fills interior
    • carved floral motifs, abstract capitals
    • horses simplified and stylized also on capitals
    • separation of men and women - orthodox tradition - 2 balconies
    • holy ratification of Justinian's right to rule
    • Christ is sitting on the orb of the world at the time of his second coming
    • symbolize Christ's redemption of humanity and the reenactment of the Ucerist
    • Justinian and his Attendants
    • Era: Byzantine, 547
    • Location: San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • shadowing in hanging folds of garments but no cast shadows
    • figures are weightless
    • tall, elongated figures
    • stiff garments
    • dematerialized bodies
    • concept of heaven for gold background but feet are on grass - connection to the church
    • each group has a leader who's feet overlap all the others - hierarchy
    • Greek letters on shields represent Christ
    • flattened space
    • bishop holds a jeweled cross showing his prominence
    • to the left of the apse
    • Justinian and Theodora are united symbolically and visually across the apse
    • Justinian in purple robes
    • he has a halo - linking himself with Christianity, reinforcing his divine right as ruler
    • advisors wear purple trim and they represent the 12 apostles
    • Eastern church plus God's laws plus State's law - divine right to rule
    • presendence and rank determine position
    • bishop to Justinian's left
    • bishop finished the building
    • benefactor in between the two of them
    • three groups
    •    - Justinian and his staff
    •    - clergy
    •    - imperial guard
    • troops have the same hair and look alike
    • emperor and bishop are more equal - imperial and church powers are in balance
    • rigid formality
    • just a gold background
    • taking place in the sanctuary
    • emperor never participated in sacred rights in this church - proxy during ritual
    • bowl holds bread
    • Theodora and her Attendants
    • Era: Byzantine, 547
    • Location: San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • compliments Justinian and his Attendants
    • has a setting
    • in a procession to the church, women were not allowed in the nave
    • going through curtain to Christ
    • Theodora is carrying the chalice for the wine
    • she is under a fancy canopy that is walking with her - women covered at all times
    • pictorial ficition because they were never actually there
    • testifies to the unique position that she held in his court
    • equated to the Virgin Mary in a way
    • almost equal of a man, purple robes and crown with halo
    • 3 figures bearing gifts to the new born Christ
    • gold background less evident
    • groupings not as strongly divided
    • Theodora is farther back in image and more ground
    • Sant' Apollinare in Classe
    • Era: Byzantine, 533-549
    • Location: Ravenna, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • basilica plan with a bell tower
    • 3 aisle basilica
    • mosaics are only in the apse
    • housed the entire body of Saint Apollinare for a while
    • Sant' Apollinare in Classe Apse
    • Era: Byzantine, 549
    • Location: Ravenna, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • mosaics on outside framing arch were added later
    • gold background
    • containing a largle medallion with a jeweled cross - symbol for the transfiguration of Christ, Constantine's cross - iconographic
    • above the cross is the hand of God
    • symbolizes the death of Saint Apollinare
    • Moses and Elijah who appear for Christ in the transfiguration
    • 3 sheep are the decipals who accompanied him
    • lambs represent martyrdom specifically apostles
    • triumph over death to lead to an eternal life
    • eternal life as a reward
    • hieratic symbolism of images
    • mankind's duty is to seek salvation
    • Saint Apollinare is in the iconographic pose of praying making him an orant
    • field of free trees and flowers - linked to earth
    • palm trees symbolize paradise
    • lilies symbolize resurrection
    • flattened symbols lined up laterally, no 3-dimensional space
    • avoid all material world and physical reality
    • paradise not just earth
    • no volume in figures
    • Trasnfiguration of Jesus
    • Era: Byzantine, 548-565
    • Location: Monestary Church of St. Catherine, Mt. Sinai, Egypt
    • Techniques:
    • focus on the soul's perfection
    • Christ inside a mondorla (aura) - signifies glory
    • white garments exude beams that represent his holiness
    • flanked by Moses and Elijah
    • balanced and upright
    • contrast against chaotic earth bound figures (Peter, John and James) - eternal composure of heavenly figures
    • inside the shape of an eye - god is all seeing
    • gold background but earthly location
    • almond shaped eyes
    • elongated figures
    • bearded Christ, more mature
    • figures are isolated
    • no cast shadows
    • mystical vision\
    • Justinian rebuilt it
    • public would not have seen this, only monks
    • Ascension of Christ
    • Era: Byzantine, 586
    • Location: Zagba, Syria
    • Techniques:
    • manuscript illuminations (pictures in the book)
    • bearded Christ in a blue mondorla
    • lifted by angels
    • Christ is not completely frontal
    • iconographic symbol of teacher
    • Theotokos underneath, apostles around her
    • figures in a painted frame that looks like a mosaic style of those in churches
    • Theotokos is frontally posed as a orant with a nimbus\
    • full page
    • vision that monk has experienced
    • illuminating the viewer to the spiritual occurance
    • Christ rises from the dead after 3 days and ascends from the Mount of Olives to Heaven
    • written in Syriac by a monk named Rabbula in a monastary
    • Theotokos and Child Between Saints Theodore and George
    • Era: Byzantine, 6th or early 7th century
    • Locaiton: Monastery of St. Catherine, Mt. Sinai, Egypt
    • Tehcniques:
    • icon - wood panel used for prayer worship
    • encaustic on wood using hot wax
    • Theotokos is enthroned
    • saints are guarding her and are the connecting between Theotokos and the viewer
    • 2 angels looking up at God's hand in a beam of light behind them
    • strictly frontal and solid in demeanor
    • detailed front figures
    • space is squeezed out
    • back plain has less detail
    • hieratic scale
    • Greco-Roman illusionism in the virgins personalized features and in the sideways glances of the angels and the posing of their heads
    • elongated frontal figures
    • lots of gold
    • almond shaped eyes
    • during period of Iconoclasim they destroyed lots of them 
    • Monastery Churches at Hosios Loukas
    • Era: Byzantine, 1020-1040 
    • Location: Phocis, Greece
    • Techniques:
    • attached to each other
    • domed cube
    • small, vertical, high shouldered
    • Theoktokos
    •    - Greek cross plan, interior
    •    - vaulted arm  
    • Katholikon
    •    -squinch dome
    •    - complex core
    •    - 2 rectangles outer ones forms exterior walls
    •    - focused from the center outwards circle - octogon - square - intricate relationship
    • Exterior-
    • ornamentation in relief style  
    • light stones used with dark ones, two tones  
    • migration period - cloisonne technique - outlining sections of colored enamal with metal  
    • interplay of projection and recession, voids - creates a energetic and dynamic surface area  
    • projecting roof lines  
    • recessed arched windows  
    • blind arcades  
    • undulating surface area  
    • arcuated windows, arches above windows and divided by columns
    • Katholikon
    • Era: Byzantine, 1020 
    • Location: Monastery Churches at Hosios Loukas, Phocis, Greece
    • Techniques:
    • creates a mystery through space and surface area, mass and void
    • created through play of light and dark
    • undulating surface areahigh shouldered, narrow
    • forcing the eye up to the divine light of heaven
    • wide and narrow openings
    • concave and convex surfaces
    • mimics groin and barrel vaulted ceilings
    • different groupings of windows (two or three)
    • dramatic shifting perspectives
    • Christ as Pantokrator
    • Era: Byzantine, 1090-1100
    • Location: Church of the Dormition, Daphni, Greece
    • Techniques:
    • a fearsome image of Christ
    • "pantokrater" means ruler of all in Greek
    • Christ is the last judge of mankind
    • climax of a hieratic scale of a pictorial program throughout the church
    • gigantic icon that hovers dramatically above you in space
    • connects worshipper below to Heaven above him
    • awestruck and given a sense of fear
    • patterned, stylized, detail
    • highlights in his hair
    • wrinkles in face
    • more mature, bearded
    • Roman robes
    • nimbus behind head
    • unnatural- not a lot of volume
    • its a mosaic
    • Crucifixion
    • Era: Byzantine, 1090-110
    • Location: Church in Daphne, Greece
    • Techniques:
    • beneath a barrel-vaulted arm
    • characteristic of post-iconoclastic Byzantine art
    • combining styles
    •    - Hellenistic style
    •    - Classical simplicity and dignity
    •    - Byzantine piety and pathos
    • implied contraposta - give contour to bodies
    • statuesque appearance of Christ
    • Byzantine linear manner - simplification of detail
    • quiet sense of sorrow and resignation, sense of grief in  Mary and St. John the Baptist
    • Mary;s drapery is a little more fluid than St. John's, curvilinear fall of drapery, attempt at realism
    • skull is symbolic - golgotha - place of the dead
    • little vegetation
    • gold background acsencion to Heaven
    • symmetry and closed space that  - emotioneless and unchanging aspect of Christianity
    • timeless, emphasizing quiet sorrow
    • not a narrative
    • not triumphant or youthful
    • tilted hard with sagging body
    • not overtly in pain
    • figures point to cross as if it is a devotional icon
    • it's a mosiac
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    • Pantocrator with Virgin, Angels, and Saints
    • Era: Byzantine, 1180-1190
    • Location: Royal Church of Monreale, Sicily
    • Techniques:
    • looming meancingly in a vault
    • allusion to the Norman King William II's kingly power and a challenge to all who might dispute his royal birth right
    • basilica plan
    • wooden ceiling painted in gold
    • in the apse not the dome
    • bearded - sense of wisdom
    • iconographic gesture of teacher and judging two fingers
    • folds are patterned and realistic v's on chest and curvilinear on the arms
    • more outlines, dimensions to his neck, naturalism in wrinkles
    • below him is heiratic scale of figures
    • Virgin Mary and Christ, enthroned and flanked by archangels and twelve apostles, arranged symmetrically and balanced
    • below that are popes and other saints

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