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  1. Something common to fungi and arthropods is:
    1. cellulose
    2. peptidoglycan
    3. starch
    4. chitin
    5. glycogen
    4
  2. What advantage might sound communicate have over visual communication?
    1. it can communicate better the degree of an animal's readiness for a particular behavior
    2. it can be transmitted over distances even when physical barriers exist
    3. it is more quickly percieved
    4. it uses less energy
    5. it is not as likely to attract preditors
    2.
  3. Class chondrichthyes includes:
    1. frogs
    2. whales
    3. all fish
    4. sharks
    5. lampreys
    4
  4. Which is the present hypothesis about altruistic behavior?
    1. an animal which expresses altruism is more likely to be killed, eliminating his genes
    2. an animal which expresses altruism is consciously self sacraficing with nothing to gain
    3. genes are preserved by altruistic behavior
    4. altruisim has no selective advantage
    5. altruisim is a learned behavior
    4
  5. A hungry newborn human infant, touched on the side of her mouth, will turn her head and tilt to suckle. This ex of innate behavior is:
    1. learned
    2. not under genetic control
    3. instintive
    4. non-adaptive
    5. a combination of all the above choices
    3
  6. McCintock found that the menstral cycle of college dorm roommates became significantly synchronous of a 6 month period. This might indicate that:
    1. Women have conscious control over their menstral cycles
    2. Eating the same foods causes menstral cycles to become synchronous
    3. Pheromones are involved
    4. Menstral cycles cannot be influenced by nerve impulses
    5. Something in the water in their dorm influenced their cycles
    3
  7. When too many larvae of some frog and salamander species hatch in a pond or pool of water they exhibit the ultimate aggressive behavior towards other members of their species, namely canibalism! This behavior can be viewed as:
    1. of no significance as it will have no effect of survival chances
    2. adaptive as atleast some are likely to survive
    3. maladaptive as some close relatives are likely eaten
    4. just plain nasty
    3
  8. The high body temperature of birds and mammals is due to:
    1. the presence of sweat, scent, and sebaceous glands
    2. lots of energy lost as heat during metabolism
    3. the fur that insulates them
    4. the exchange of gases and nutrients via the placenta
    5. behaviors like baking in the sun or seeking shade
    2
  9. The water-vascular system of echinoderms is used for:
    1. food capture
    2. transport of blood
    3. locomotion and respiration
    4. 1 & 2
    5. all of the above
    4
  10. A chemical produced in one animal that alters the physiological state of another of the same species is called a:
    1. neurotransmitter
    2. releaser
    3. pheromone
    4. hormone
    5. subliminal suggestion
    3
  11. An example of a pheromone is:
    1. the moaning sounds of whales
    2. bat echolocation (sonar)
    3. trail substance deposited by ants
    4. bird songs
    5. light emitted by fireflies
    3
  12. Peahens (female peafowl) generally selectively breed with males of the species (peacocks) with the largest tails. However, the larger the peacocks tail, the less well he can fly and the more likely he is to be eaten by foxes and other preditors. In this case:
    1. both sexual and natural selection favor larger tails in peacocks
    2. sexual selection favors smaller tails, but natural favors larger tails
    3. both sexual and natural selection favor smaller tails in peacocks
    4. sexual selection favors larger tails, but natural favors smaller tails
    4
  13. Which factor relating to visual communication is not adaptive?
    1. it may attract preditors
    2. it is quiet
    3. it is equally perceived
    4. it doesn't produce an odor
    5. it can communicate the degree of an animal's rediness for a particular behavior
    2
  14. Defense of an area where important resources for survival are location is termed:
    1. aggression
    2. appeasement
    3. territoriality
    4. passive behavior
    5. kinesis
    3
  15. The dominance hierarcy within a group of animals functions to:
    1. minimize aggression
    2. cause an increase in fighting among members of a population
    3. eliminate competition
    4. limit population numbers
    5. increase competition
    1
  16. Studies of identical human twins have shown:
    1. Their identical genes appear to have a great deal of influence on their behavior
    2. They are no more alike than are fraternal twins
    3. They exhibit vastly different behavioral traits if raised in different enviornments
    4. they do no live as long as fraternal twins live
    5. Behavior does not depend on the type of genes present
    1
  17. Pheromones are:
    1. sounds emitted to warn insects of impending danger
    2. a form of chemical communication among insects
    3. insect hormones
    4. signals involved in learned behavior patterns of insects
    5. light emitted by fireflies during the mating season
    2
  18. Honeybees sting a bear robbing their hive even though the bees die after the sting the bear. This is an ex. of:
    1. Hibituation
    2. Territoriality
    3. Conditioning
    4. altruism
    2
  19. Worms witha well-developed circulatory system (including five pairs of hearts) are:
    1. eels
    2. platyheminths
    3. echinoderms
    4. nematodes
    5. annelids
    5
  20. An animal's ability to live successfully on land is increased by:
    1. a two-chamber heart
    2. development in a shelled egg
    3. moist skin used for gas exchange
    4. external fertilization
    5. gills
    2
  21. Mammals have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT:
    1. hair
    2. lungs
    3. mammary glands
    4. four-chambered heart
    5. all are mammalian characteristics
    5
  22. The largest and most intelligent invertebrates are:
    1. uniramia
    2. gastropoda
    3. cephalopoda
    4. aves
    5. chordata
    5
  23. The epithelial and nervous tissues develop from which germ layer?
    1. mesoglea
    2. ectoderm
    3. protoplasm
    4. endoderm
    5. mesoderm
    4
  24. Between the organs and the body wall, complex animals have a body cavity called:
    1. mesoderm
    2. thorax
    3. coelom
    4. mesoglea
    5. cnidarian
    1
  25. The dominant animal in a social hierarchy, such as a wolf pack, is called the:
    1. predator
    2. alpha
    3. master
    4. general
    5. king
    2
  26. The dominant animal taxon in terms of diversity and richness is:
    1. nematoda
    2. arthropoda
    3. annelida
    4. chordata
    5. echinodermata
    4
  27. A natural bath sponge is formed from:
    1. chitin
    2. cellulose
    3. proteinaceous sponge spicules
    4. silica
    5. collar cells
    3
  28. Giant squids belong to which group?
    1. echinoderms
    2. chordates
    3. platyhelminthes
    4. mollusk
    5. arthropods
    4
  29. Reptiles are better adapted to land dwelling than amphibians because of their:
    1. moist skin used as respiratory structure
    2. lungs with more surface area for gas exchange
    3. two-chambered heart
    4. embryo's uterine development
    5. all of the above
    2
  30. Chordates are characterized by:
    1. pharyngeal gills slits
    2. a dorsal, hollow nerve cord
    3. a fully lines body cavity
    4. bilateral symmery
    5. all of the above
    5
  31. Method of communication between animals are:
    1. sound
    2. touch
    3. visual
    4. chemical
    5. all of the above choices are correct
    5
  32. The waggle dance of honeybees is:
    1. used to signal the beginning of mating season
    2. used to delimit territory
    3. an indicator of danger to the hive
    4. used to descrive the location of food
    5. an example of courtship behavior
    4
  33. Schistosomiasis, a devastating disease which affects about 200 million people in tropical regions is caused by:
    1. parasitic flatworms called blood flukes
    2. nematodes
    3. amoebas
    4. Trichinella
    5. echinoderms
    1
  34. A joint exoskeleton is a characteristic of:
    1. insects
    2. mammals
    3. annelids
    4. 1 & 2
    5. all of the above
    1
  35. Archaeopteryx (a fossil animal) has characteristics which link it to both:
    1. amphibians and mammals
    2. amphibians and reptiles
    3. reptiles and mammals
    4. birds and mammals
    5. reptiles and birds
    5
  36. Viceroy butterflies have color patterns that closely mimic those of monarchs. when monarchs are common and viceroys are scares, viceroys are protected as birds cannot tell them apart from monarchs. However, if monarchs become very scares and viceroys much more common, what do you predict will happen?

    1. The birds may switch to eating monarch butterflies
    memerize this one.. 1
  37. Parasitic lampreys have:
    1. a backbone
    2. a two-chambered heart
    3. suckerlike mouths line with teeth
    4. bilateral symmetry
    5. all of the above
    5
  38. A decline in response to a harmless, repeated stimulus is called:
    1. classical conditioning
    2. fixed action behavior
    3. instinctive behavior
    4. habituation
    5. imprinting
    5
  39. Phylum Nematoda includes these very common organisms, some of which are parasitic and most of which are often found in soil.
    1. segmented worms
    2. flatworms
    3. roundworms
    4. earthworms
    5. all of the above
    3
  40. Class Aves includes:
    1. reptiles
    2. frogs
    3. birds
    4. kangaroo
    5. dogs
    3
  41. Amphibians are not especially successful land dwellers due to their:
    1. reliance on a moist skin for gas exchange
    2. production of a shelled amnote egg
    3. lungs that are supplemented by air sacs
    4. two-chamber hearts
    5. all of the above
    1
  42. Which is NOT an advantage of being a social animal?
    1. increased ability to detect predators
    2. increased hunting efficiency
    3. increased likelihood of finding mates
    4. conservation of energy
    5. all are advantages of being a social animal
    5
  43. The behavior of bullhead catfish is determined primarily by:
    1. vocal displays
    2. learned experiences
    3. pheromones
    4. visual displays
    5. the fact that they are solitary
    4
  44. Behavior called play:
    1. Lacks a clear function
    2. is often dangerous
    3. is more frequent in young animals than in adults
    4. all of the above
    3
  45. The most rigid and complex societies (human excepted) are found among the:
    1. reptiles
    2. fishes
    3. mammals
    4. birds
    5. insects
    5
  46. The great size and mobility of the vertebrate is associated with:
    1. uterine development of offspring
    2. lungs used for repiration
    3. four chamber hearts
    4. increased brain size and complexity
    5. lightwright endoskeletons
    5
  47. The mobile stage of cnidarians is the:
    1. cnidocyst
    2. glochidium
    3. zooflagellate
    4. medusa
    5. polyp
    4
  48. In a tank of goldfish, each fish chases all of the other fish that are smaller. This illustrates:
    1. ritualized combat
    2. dominance hierarchy
    3. aggressive behavior
    4. all of these
    4
  49. Konrad Lorenz taught ducks to behave towards him as though he were their mother by providing the appropriate stimulus during a sensitive period. The learned behavior that resulted from this is called:
    1. fixed action behavior
    2. classical conditioning
    3. altruism
    4. imprinting
    5. habituation
    4
  50. Which of the following is NOT a group of vertebrates?
    1. Mammalia
    2. Aves
    3. Amphibia
    4. Echinodermata
    5. Reptilia
    4
  51. Which of the following human behavoir patterns is probably learned?
    1. breast suckling
    2. hunger
    3. smiling
    4. walking movements when the body is supported
    5. recognition of mother
    3
  52. Which of the following has a ventral nerve cord?
    1. frog
    2. shark
    3. hummingbird
    4. earthworm
    5. coelacanth
    4
  53. Cephalization in the animal kingdom is:
    1. evolutionary development of a net-like system of veins.
    2. concentration of sensory structures in the head
    3. development of eyes at the head end of the organism
    4. the ability to make rapid responses to external stimuli
    5. development of a body which has paired structures that form a side-to-side mirror image
    2
  54. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of animals?
    1. rapid response to external stimuli
    2. multicellular
    3. mobility at some stage of their life
    4. cells with nuclei, mitochondria and cholorplasts
    5. cells without cell walls
    4
  55. Which of these groups is characterized by having a pseudocoelom?
    1. cnidarians
    2. arthropods
    3. annelids
    4. chordates
    5. roundworms
    1
  56. Something common to fungi and arthropods is:
    1. cellulose
    2. peptidoglycan
    3. starch
    4. chitin
    5. glycogen
    4
  57. Invertebrate chordates are NOT characterized by a:
    1. backbone
    2. coelom
    3. dorsal, hollow nerve cord
    4. pharyngeal
    5. post-anal tail
    1
  58. The capacity to make changes in behavoir on the basis of experience is called:
    1. learning
    2. an unfixed action pattern
    3. habituation
    4. a fixed action pattern
    5. non-stereotypical behavior
    1
  59. A toad which eats a bee and is stung, thereafter avoids bees. This is an example of:
    1. instinctive behavior
    2. classical conditioning
    3. trial and error learning
    4. insight
    5. imprinting
    3
  60. Reptilian embryos will not dry out in a desert habitat because:
    1. reptiles' eggs are protected by a jellylike coating
    2. reptiles produce lots of defensive slime
    3. the placenta facilitates exchanges between the mother and the embryo
    4. reptiles are warm-blooded
    5. reptiles produce shelled amniote eggs
    1
  61. Male bullfrogs embryos with calls of intermediate loudness (i.e., not the loudest) might have the highest fitness in years:
    1. when food is more abundant than normal
    2. when females are relatively scarce
    3. when males are relatively numerous
    4. when predators that locate their prey using sound are very abundant
    1
  62. An organism with cephalization will most likely have:
    1. radial symmetry
    2. gills
    3. a brain
    4. a gastrovascular cavity
    5. hooks and suckers
    3
  63. You teach your dog Rex to sit by giving him a treat for every correct response. This is an example of:
    1. classical conditioning
    2. trial and error learning
    3. operant conditioning
    4. habituation
    3
  64. The body of a fungus is generally composed of:
    1. vascular tissue
    2. mold
    3. mycorrhizae
    4. cellulose
    5. hyphae
    5
  65. An animal like a grasshopper can conserve water because it has an elaborately branching system of tubes within its body used for gas exchange. These tubes are called:
    1. kidneys
    2. tracheae
    3. flame cells
    4. gills
    5. book lungs
    2
  66. "Getting used to" a repeated stimulus so that it no longer evokes a response is called:
    1. habituation
    2. instinctive behavior
    3. imprinting
    4. insight
    5. trial and error learning
    1
  67. Class Chondrichthyes includes:
    1. frogs
    2. whales
    3. all fish
    4. sharks
    5. lampreys
    4
  68. Parasitic lampreys have:
    1. a backbone
    2. a two-chambered heart
    3. suckerlike mouths lined with teeth
    4. bilateral symmetry
    5. all of the abovefruit
    5
  69. Normal fruit fly (Drosophila) larvae move away from their food after eating. However, some larvae that were subjected to X-rays as fertilized eggs instead remain near or in their food after eating. These two clearly distinct phenotypes have been called "sitters" and "rovers", respectively. The only consistent difference in the DNA of these two types is a few base pairs on one chromosome. If one of the rover fruit flies is mated with one of the sitters, the resulting offspring may be 75% rovers and 25% sitters. Recalling your Mendelian genetics, this indicates that:
    1. this trait exhibits simple dominance
    2. the rover allele is dominant over the sitter allele
    3. the rover parent must have been heterozygous for this trait
    4. all of the above
    5. nothing can be concluded about the gentics of this trait from the information provided
    op
    3
  70. An animal's ability to live successfully on land is increased by:
    1. a two-chambered heart
    2. development in a shelled egg
    3. moist skin used for gas exchange
    4. external fertilization
    5. gills
    2
  71. The vulnerability of these semi-terrestrial chordates to both water and air pollutants may be the cause of their dramatic decline in numbers.
    1. amphibians
    2. arthropods
    3. reptiles
    4. bony fish
    5. annelids
    1
  72. Methods of comminication between animals are:
    1. sound
    2. touch
    3. visual
    4. chemical
    5. all the above choices are incorrect
    5
  73. All the following are pheromones EXCEPT:
    1. urine used by wolves to mark territories
    2. light emitted by fireflies
    3. queen substance produced by honeybees
    4. trail substance produced by ants
    5. sex attractant produced by Japanese beetles
    2
  74. The great size and mobility of the vertebrates is associated with:
    1. uterine development of offspring
    2. lungs used for respiration
    3. four chamber hearts
    4. increased brain size and complexity
    5. lightweight endoskeletons
    5
  75. Claviceps purpurea is an organism from phylum _______. It infects rye plants and produces toxins (including LSD) that can produce convulsions, hallucinations, and death if consumed by a person.
    1. Basidiomycota
    2. Ascomycota
    3. Zygomycota
    4. Oomycota
    5. Deuteromycota
    1
  76. During operant conditioning, an animal learns:
    1. to behave like a different animal
    2. to perform a response to a new stimulus
    3. to change a reflex behavior
    4. to imprint upon an inappropriate object
    5. to perform a behavior to receive a reward or or avoid punishment
    5
  77. The _____ unique to the cephalopod class of mollusks supports their active lifestyle.
    1. coelom
    2. closed circulatory system
    3. radula
    4. tubular gut
    5. hinged shells
    5
  78. Cartilaginous fish are characterized by:
    1. four chamber hearts
    2. suckerlike mouths lined with teeth
    3. lungs supplemented by air sacs
    4. a backbone
    5. bony skeletons
    4
  79. True fungi are characterized by/as ______.
    1. cell walls, feeding by absorption, and usually have filamentous bodies
    2. no cell walls, parasitic, heterotrophic
    3. cell walls, photosynthesis, and usually have filamentous bodies
    4. cell walls, chemosynthetic, heterotrophic
    5. no cell walls, feeding by absorption, chemosynthesis
    1
  80. Which of the following is a common polysaccharide found in fungi and in arthropods?
    1. glucose
    2. glycogen
    3. fructose
    4. cellulose
    5. chitin
    5
  81. Which of the following animals uses a radula to scrape food into its mouth?
    1. rat
    2. octopus
    3. starfish
    4. Scallop
    5. snail
    5
  82. Ascomycetes and unicellular green algae living in close relationship with each other form a
    1. green plant
    2. Rhizopus
    3. mycorrhizal association
    4. lichen
    5. myxomycota
    4
  83. Which of these groups is characterized by having a true coelom?
    1. cnidarians
    2. sponges
    3. arthropods
    4. roundworms
    5. flatworms
    5
  84. Your leftovers are guaranteed to grow moldy because fungi ______.
    1. are heterotrophic
    2. produce temporary visible reproductive structures
    3. have chitin in their cell walls
    4. have haploid bodies
    5. reproduce using highly mobile spores
    5
  85. Most insect species have dull colors to blend in with their surroundings. This makes them less obvious to predators and reduces mortality. However, some poisonous species like the monarch butterfly (which picks up its poison from the milkweeds on which it feeds) advertise their presence with bright, high-contrast color patterns. They can do this because most of their predators, once they have tasted a monarch, will leave them alone in the future. As a result, they are relying on what type of learning in their predators?
    1. imprinting
    2. conditioning
    3. insight learning
    4. habituation
    5. all of the above
    2
  86. Which of these human diseases is NOT caused by a fungus?
    1. typhoid
    2. histoplasmosis
    3. ringworm
    4. vaginal yeast infection
    5. athlete's foot
    1
  87. The dominant generation in the fungal life cycle is usually ______.
    1. haploid
    2. unicellular
    3. a sporophyte
    4. diploid
    5. polyploid
    4
  88. A jointed exoskeleton is a characteristic of:
    1. insects
    2. mammals
    3. annelids
    4. 1 & 2
    5. all of the above
    1
  89. When walking your male dog, you notice that he urinated upon every horizontal surface in his path. His urine is used to "mark" his territory, and serves as a chemical signal to other dogs. His uring contains:
    1. pheromones
    2. releasers
    3. hormones
    4. apomones
    1
  90. B.F. Skinner is most closely associated with research on:
    1. classical conditioning
    2. breeding experiments with pigeons
    3. causing dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell
    4. imprinting experiments with ducks
    5. operant conditioning
    5
  91. The conspicuous structures on the surface of a dead tree that indicate a fungus is growing inside are for
    1. show only
    2. reproduction
    3. pollination
    4. defense
    5. feeding
    2
  92. What is the only group without true tissues?
    1. sea cucumber
    2. round worms
    3. tape worms
    4. sponges
    5. insects
    4
  93. A cnidarian that produces a calcium carbonate protective "house" is a(n):
    1. oyster
    2. clam
    3. coral
    4. crab
    5. snail
    3
  94. Nesting geese will roll softballs into their nests. This kind of behavior is:
    1. habituation
    2. conditioned
    3. innate
    4. insight learning
    3
  95. How can flatworms survive without a respiratory system?
    1. they are not very metabolically active
    2. they are flat
    3. they have a thin, moist covering
    4. they are small
    5. all of these
    5
  96. In a classic experiment from the 1930s, Tryon conducted selective breeding experiments on maze running begavior in rats. He repeatedly bred maze-bright males (fewest wrong turns before reaching a prize at the end) to maze-bright females and maze-dull males (most mistakes) to maze-dull females. There was a progressive divergence of the two descendant lines resulting in almost no overlap after just eight generations. What would you expect the maze running ability of the offspring of a maze-bright male and maze-dull female to be?
    1. large number of mistakes, like the mother
    2. small number of mistakes, like the father
    3. intermediate number of mistakes
    4. no conclusions can be reached based on the information provided
    3
  97. Innate animal behvior is:
    1. nonadaptive
    2. learned
    3. not under genetic control
    4. instinctive
    5. a combination of all the above choices
    5
  98. Male bullfrogs produce loud calls during the mating season to attract females. Most females prefer males with the loudest calls. What can we reasonably conclude this situation?
    1. the louder a male's call, the higher his fitness
    2. the louder a male's call, the lower his fitness
    3. the loudness of a male's call is not a good predictor of his fitness
    4. we cannot come to any conclusions based on the information given
    1
  99. Which cnidarian is important to more forms of life in the ocean than any other?
    1. anemone
    2. coral
    3. hydra
    4. polyp
    5. jellyfish
    2
  100. The currents of water (containing food) that pass through a sponge are created by:
    1. medusa
    2. collar cells
    3. water-vascular system
    4. ganglia
    5. osculum
    2
  101. Two dairy bulls lower heads and push each other around in a field. This is an example of:
    1. ritualized combat
    2. a display
    3. a pheromone
    4. a passive visual signal
    1
  102. Hemocoel or blood cavity is found in or associated with:
    1. cephalopods
    2. sponges
    3. an open circulatory system
    4. all animals
    5. acoelomates
    3
  103. Which is NOT true of male animals that have established a good territory?
    1. they must advertise to keep other males out
    2. they are more likely to reproduce successfully
    3. they are more likely to attract females
    4. they will mark the territory well
    5. they are more likely to range outside of it to get enough food
    5
  104. Greatest long distance communication occurs between:
    1. elephants
    2. birds
    3. bats
    4. whales
    5. insects
    4
  105. Konrad Lorenz taught ducks to behave towards him as though he were their mother by providing the appropriate stimulus during a sensitive period. The learned behavior that resulted from this is called:
    1. fixed action behavior
    2. classical conditioning
    3. altruism
    4. imprinting
    5. habituation
    4
  106. Which of these groups is characterized by a lack of symmetry (neither radial nor bilateral symmetry)?
    1. arthropods
    2. chordates
    3. cnidarians
    4. sponges
    5. flatworms
    4
  107. Which of these is NOT a characteristic of most animals?
    1. no cell wall
    2. swiftly respond to stimuli
    3. reproduce sexually
    4. autotrophic
    5. motility at some stage of the life cycle
    4
  108. Which of these trends has occurred in the course of animal evolution?
    1. increasing cellular specialization
    2. cephalization
    3. constant increase of heterotrophism
    4. 1 & 2
    5. 1, 2, & 3
    4
  109. Which of the following analogies is INCORRECT?
    1. lungs-stomata
    2. shelled amniote egg-fruit
    3. dry, scaly skin-waxy cuticle
    4. limbs-roots
    3
  110. You teach your dog Axel to sit by giving him a treat for every correct response. This is an example of:
    1. classical conditioning
    2. trial and error learning
    3. operant conditioning
    4. habituation
    3
  111. One trend in the evolution of animals is the increase in the number of tissue (germ) layers that can be seen during embryonic development. In flatworms and more complex animals, how many layers are there?
    1. 2
    2. 4
    3. 6
    4. 3
    5. 5
    4
  112. When your canary is singing in it cage it is:
    1. marking its territory
    2. an aggressive display
    3. trying to find mate
    4. both 1 & 2
    5. all of the above are true
    3
  113. The body of a fungus is generally composed of _______.
    1. vascular tissue
    2. mold
    3. mycorrhizae
    4. cellulose
    5. hyphae
    5
  114. The dominance hierarchy within a group of animals functions to:
    1. minimize aggression
    2. cause an increase in fighting among members of a population
    3. eliminate competition
    4. limit population numbers
    5. increase competition
    3
  115. Which factor relating to visual communication is not adaptive?
    1. it may attract predators
    2. it is quiet
    3. it is quickly perceived
    4. it doesn't produce an odor
    5. it can communicate the degree of an animal's readiness for a particular behavior
    2
  116. A fairy ring is:
    1. a cluster of basidiomycota mycelia
    2. a ring of basidiomycota spores
    3. a ring of mushrooms
    4. a ring of gills on the underside of a mushroom
    5. a circle of basidia
    5
  117. The great size and mobility of the vertebrates is associated with:
    1. uterine development of offspring
    2. lungs used for respiration
    3. four chamber hearts
    4. increased brain size and complexity
    5. lightweight endoskeletons
    5
  118. A male firefly flashes to attract a female. This behavior is:
    1. an active visual display
    2. learned
    3. innate
    4. both 1 &3
    4
  119. You must decide how to classify a newly discovered organism, but have only the chemicals below to help you make your decision. After testing it with the available chemicals, you find out it glows, doesn't turn blue, and fizzes. How will you classify this organism? Glowing=the presence of a nuclear envelope. Blue=the presence of chloroplasts. Fizzing=the presence of chitin.
    1. slime mold
    2. zooflagellate
    3. diatom
    4. fungus
    5. bacterium
    4
  120. Phylum Nematoda includes these very common organisms, some of which are parasitic and most of which are often found in soil.
    1. segmented worms
    2. flatworms
    3. roundworms
    4. earthworms
    5. all of the above
    3
  121. Defense of an area where important resources for survival are located is termed:
    1. aggression
    2. appeasement
    3. territoriality
    4. passive behavior
    5. kinesis
    3
  122. Which of these groups is characterized by having a pseudocoelom?
    1. cnidarians
    2. arthropods
    3. annelids
    4. chordates
    5. roundworms
    2
  123. The worldwide die-off of frogs has been traced to infection by what type of fungus?
    1. basidiomycetes
    2. ascomycetes
    3. imperfect fungi
    4. chytrids
    5. zygomycetes
    4

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