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2012-09-19 14:24:15

Child Development
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  1. The pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the life span.
  2. Advocated during the Middle Ages, the belief that children were born into the world as evil beings and were basically bad.
    Original sin view
  3. The idea, proposed by John Locke, that children are like a "blank tablet."
    Tabula rasa view
  4. The idea, presented by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, that children are inherently good.
    Innate goodness view
  5. The settings, influenced by historical, economic, social and cultural factors, in which development occurs.
  6. The behavior pattersn, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation.
  7. Comparisons of one culture with one or more other cultures. These provide information about the degree to which children's development is similar or universal across cultures, and to the degree to which it is culture specific.
    Cross-cultural studies
  8. A characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language.
  9. Categorization based on a person's occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.
    Socioeconomic status
  10. The characteristics of people as males and females.
  11. When a child develops confidence in their abilities despite negative stereotypes about their gender or ethnic group, they are showing...
  12. A government's course of action designedto promote the welfare of its citizens.
    Social policy
  13. Changes in an individual's body.
    Biological processes
  14. Changes in an individual's thinking, intelligence, and language.
    Cognitive processes
  15. Changes in an individual's relationships with other people, emotions, and personality.
    Socioemotional processes
  16. Explores links between development, cognitive processes, and the brain.
    Developmental cognitive neuroscience
  17. Examines connections between development, socioemotional processes, and the brain.
    Developmental social neuroscience
  18. The time from conception to birth
    Prenatal period
  19. The developmental period that extends from birth to about 18 to 24 months
  20. The developmental period that extends from the end of infancy to about five or six years of age, sometimes called the preschool years.
    Early childhood
  21. The developmental period that extends from about 6 to 11 years of age, sometiems called the elementary school years.
    Middle and late childhood
  22. The developmental period of transition from childhood to early adulthood, entered at approximately 10 to 12 years of age and ending at 18 or 19 years of age.
  23. Debate about whether development is primarily influenced by nature or nurture. The "nature" proponents claim biological inheritance is the most important influence on development; the "nurture" proponents claim that environmental experiences are the most important.
    Nature-nurture issue
  24. Question about whether development involves gradual, cumulative change or distinct stages.
    Continuity-discontinuity issue
  25. Gradual, cumulative change
  26. Change in distinct stages
  27. Controversy regarding the degree to which early experiences (especially during infancy) or later experiences are the key determination of children's development.
    Early-later experience issue
  28. An approach that can be used to obtain accurate information by carrying out four steps: 1. conceptualize the problem, 2. collect data, 3. draw conclusions, and 4. revise research conclusions and theory
    Scientific method
  29. An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain and make predictions.
  30. Specific assumptions and predictions that can be tested to determine their accuracy.
  31. Theories that describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion. Behavior is merely a surface characteristic, and the symbolic workings of the mind have to be analyzed to understand behavior. Early experiences with parents are emphasized.
    Psychoanalytic theories
  32. Description of eight stages of human development. Each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be resolved.
    Erikson's theory
  33. Theory stating that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development.
    Piaget's theory
  34. A sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development.
    Vygotsky's theory
  35. Holds that we can study scientifically only what can be directly observed and measured.
  36. Emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. Central to this theory are the processes of memory and thinking.
    Information-processing theory
  37. The view of psychologists who emphasize behavior, environment, and cognition as the key factors in development.
    Social cognitive theory
  38. Stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods.
  39. An environmental systems theory that focuses on five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem.
    Brofenbrenner's ecological theory
  40. An orientation that does not follow any one theoreticl approach but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered its best aspects.
    Eclectic theoretical orientation
  41. A controlled setting from which many of the complex factors of the "real world" have been removed
  42. Behavioral observation that takes place in real-world settings
    Naturalistic observation
  43. A test with uniform procedures for administration and scoring. 
    Standardized test
  44. An in-depth look at a single individual
    Case study
  45. Research that involves observing and recording behavior
    Descriptive research
  46. Research in which the goal is to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics
    Correlational research
  47. A carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors is believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant.
  48. A research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at the same point in time.
    Cross-sectional approach
  49. A research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years.
    Longitudinal research
  50. Use of an ethnic label such as African American in a superficial way that portrays a group as being more homogeneous than it really is.
    Ethnic gloss