The pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the life span.
Advocated during the Middle Ages, the belief that children were born into the world as evil beings and were basically bad.
Original sin view
The idea, proposed by John Locke, that children are like a "blank tablet."
Tabula rasa view
The idea, presented by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, that children are inherently good.
Innate goodness view
The settings, influenced by historical, economic, social and cultural factors, in which development occurs.
The behavior pattersn, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation.
Comparisons of one culture with one or more other cultures. These provide information about the degree to which children's development is similar or universal across cultures, and to the degree to which it is culture specific.
A characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language.
Categorization based on a person's occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.
The characteristics of people as males and females.
When a child develops confidence in their abilities despite negative stereotypes about their gender or ethnic group, they are showing...
A government's course of action designedto promote the welfare of its citizens.
Changes in an individual's body.
Changes in an individual's thinking, intelligence, and language.
Changes in an individual's relationships with other people, emotions, and personality.
Explores links between development, cognitive processes, and the brain.
Developmental cognitive neuroscience
Examines connections between development, socioemotional processes, and the brain.
Developmental social neuroscience
The time from conception to birth
The developmental period that extends from birth to about 18 to 24 months
The developmental period that extends from the end of infancy to about five or six years of age, sometimes called the preschool years.
The developmental period that extends from about 6 to 11 years of age, sometiems called the elementary school years.
Middle and late childhood
The developmental period of transition from childhood to early adulthood, entered at approximately 10 to 12 years of age and ending at 18 or 19 years of age.
Debate about whether development is primarily influenced by nature or nurture. The "nature" proponents claim biological inheritance is the most important influence on development; the "nurture" proponents claim that environmental experiences are the most important.
Question about whether development involves gradual, cumulative change or distinct stages.
Gradual, cumulative change
Change in distinct stages
Controversy regarding the degree to which early experiences (especially during infancy) or later experiences are the key determination of children's development.
Early-later experience issue
An approach that can be used to obtain accurate information by carrying out four steps: 1. conceptualize the problem, 2. collect data, 3. draw conclusions, and 4. revise research conclusions and theory
An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain and make predictions.
Specific assumptions and predictions that can be tested to determine their accuracy.
Theories that describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion. Behavior is merely a surface characteristic, and the symbolic workings of the mind have to be analyzed to understand behavior. Early experiences with parents are emphasized.
Description of eight stages of human development. Each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be resolved.
Theory stating that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development.
A sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development.
Holds that we can study scientifically only what can be directly observed and measured.
Emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. Central to this theory are the processes of memory and thinking.
The view of psychologists who emphasize behavior, environment, and cognition as the key factors in development.
Social cognitive theory
Stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods.
An environmental systems theory that focuses on five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem.
Brofenbrenner's ecological theory
An orientation that does not follow any one theoreticl approach but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered its best aspects.
Eclectic theoretical orientation
A controlled setting from which many of the complex factors of the "real world" have been removed
Behavioral observation that takes place in real-world settings
A test with uniform procedures for administration and scoring.
An in-depth look at a single individual
Research that involves observing and recording behavior
Research in which the goal is to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics
A carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors is believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant.
A research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at the same point in time.
A research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years.
Use of an ethnic label such as African American in a superficial way that portrays a group as being more homogeneous than it really is.