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Physiology is the science of body functions.
What is the meaning of the word Physiology?
- Physis = nature
- Logos = science
What tools do physiologists use to explain how the body works?
- - Biochemistry
- - Cell Biology
- - Genetics
- - Metabolics
- - Engineering
What are the 2 "approaches" to Physiology, and what do they mean?
1. Reductionist Approach: study of the details by continuously dissecting into smaller and smaller pieces. (Problem: Scientist got lost, they needed to take a more "whole" approch)
2. Systems Approach: study of not only the function of the body but also the diseases. This approach aims to discover and fix the true problem and not just it's symptoms.
What are the levels of organization in the body, from smallest to largest?
Chemical < Cells < Tissues < Organs < Organ Systems < Organisms
What are the 3 principles of Physiology?
1. Simplicity: ex. brain cells - billions of them but can be classified in 4 groups
2. Interaction among different parts: ex. cell metabolims & blood circulation
3. Structure/Function relationship: cannot have one without the other
Why are cells considered the smallest functional unit of life? (What processes do they carry out?)
- - Metabolically active (use oxygen/nutrients, produce carbon dioxide/wastes, synthesize complex molecules)
- - Sensitive to the environment
- - Growth
- - Reproduction (not all: ex. neurons)
Name the 4 categories of cells in the body and their primary functions.
- - Neurons: initiate, transmit electrical impulses
- - Muscle cells: contraction, generation of force
- - Epithelial cells: barrier between internal/external environment, exchange (selectively permeable), form glands
- - Connective tissue cells: connect, anchor, support, ex. tendons, ligaments, blood, lymph, extracellular matrix
Collection of cells of same type and function.
Collection of 2 or more types of tissues in a structure that perform a specific function.
Define Organ Systems
Collection of organs that work together to accomplish a particular task.
Define Internal Environment
Area of body within the epithelial membrane
What areas inside the body are considered part of the external environment?
- - Lumen of respiratory system
- - GI system
- - Urinary system
Name the body fluid compartments and the areas they occupy/do not occupy.
- - Total Body Water (TBW): occupy entire internal environment
- - Intracellular Fluid (ICF): inside cells (including blood cells)
- - Extracellular Fluid (ECF): occupy internal environment except inside cells
- - Plasma: fluid in bloodstream, occupy bloodstream except inside of blood cells
- - Interstitial Fluid (ISF): occupy internal environment except inside cells and bloodstream
Process of maintaining a stable internal environment compatible for life.
Capicity for self-regulation.
What is the meaning of the word Homeostasis?
- Homeo = same
- Stasis = condition
What needs to be maintained to achieve Homeostasis and what are the consequences of not maintaining them?
- The internal environment needs to be maintained:
- - ECF Composition
- - ECF Temperature
- - ECF Volume
Failure to maintain these resulsts in disease or death.
Define Set Point
Desired level of regulated variable
Define the role of a Sensor
Detect level of regulated variable and provide input to the integrating center
Define the role of the Integrating Center
Compares set point to actual level of regulated variable
Define Error Signal
Difference between actual level and set point
Define role of Effectors
Receives output from integrating center to return regulated variable toward set point
Describe the steps Negative Feedback
- 1. External change
- 2. Triggers change in regulated variable in internal environment
- 3. Triggers reaction to oppose the change and return regulated variable toward normal (set point)