PSYC of G ch. 3

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PSYC of G ch. 3
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PSYC of G ch. 3
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  1. Gender stereotype
    • ·        
    • the beliefs associated with the characteristics
    • and personalities appropriate to men and women

    • influenced by
    • historical views
  2. The Cult of True Womanhood
    • ·        
    • arose during Victorian times

    • believed that women
    • should be pious, pure, submissive, and domestic
  3. Male Gender Role Identity
    • ·        
    • a model of masculinity

    • ·        
    • believes that to be successful as a man, males
    • must identify with the elements of that role

    • ·        
    • need to avoid all feminine activities and
    • interests

    • need to have an
    • achievement orientation, suppress emotions, and be aggressive and assertive
  4. Attitude Interest Analysis Survey
    • ·        
    • first test that measured personality traits

    • conceptualized
    • masculinity and femininity  as opposite
    • poles of one continuum
  5. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
    • still uses unidimensional approach as The
    • Attitude Interest Analysis Survey
  6. Androgyny
    • ·        
    • recent approach to the measurement of masculinity
    • and femininity

    • ·        
    • Bem Sex Role Inventory

    • ·        
    • Personal Attributes Questionnaire

    • allows for
    • classification of people ase androgynous
  7. Four aspects of gender stereotypes
    • ·        
    • physical characteristics

    • ·        
    • traits

    • ·        
    • behaviors

    occupations
  8. How is stereotyping maintained?
    • the illusion that more activities and
    • characteristics are associated with gender than actually are
  9. Stages of rigid and flexible stereotyping
    • ·        
    • more flexible after age 7

    • ·        
    • rigid during adolescents

    • more flexible in
    • adulthood
  10. Negative aspects of stereotyping
    • ·        
    • prejudice

    • ·        
    • discrimination

    • ·        
    • threat

    benevolent sexism
  11. Benevolent sexism
    • consists of positive attitudes that nonetheless
    • serve to belittle women and keep them subservient
  12. gender roles across cultures
    • ·        
    • all cultures delegate different roles to men and
    • women

    • the traits associated
    • with each gender varies among cultures
  13. Male gender stereotype
    instrumental, agentic model
  14. Female gender stereotype
    expressive, communal model
  15. Androgyny
    • a blending of masculinity and femininity, in
    • which the desirable characteristics associated with both men and women are
    • combined within individuals
  16. Benevolent sexism
    • positive attitudes that nonetheless serve to
    • belittle women and keep them subservient
  17. Gender stereotype
    • the beliefs about the characteristics associated
    • with, and the activities appropriate to, men or women
  18. Illusory correlation
    • ·        
    • the incorrect belief that two events vary
    • together

    • or the perception
    • that the relationship is strong when little or no actual relationship exists
  19. Implicit attitudes
    • ·        
    • attitudes that people hold on an unconscious
    • level

    • may differ from their
    • explicit, conscious attitudes
  20. Stereotype threat
    • a phenomenon that occurs in situations in which
    • the presence of negative stereotypes affects the performance of those to whom
    • the stereotype applies
  21. Validation
    • ·        
    • the process of demonstrating that a
    • psychological test measures what it claims to measure

    • the procedure that
    • demonstrates the accuracy of a test
  22. gender stereotypes
    • beliefs people hold about men's and women's attributes
    • - descriptive
    • - prescriptive
  23. automatic in function (gender sterotypes)
    all people know the stereotypes, whether or not they act on them
  24. difficult to suppress (gender stereotypes)
    people who are not prejudice tend to suppress stereotypes
  25. gender interacts with other social categories (gender stereotypes)
    ex: age
  26. attributes of each gender found by more than thirty years of psychological research
    • *female attributes: expressive, communal
    • *male attributes: instrumental (getting stuff done), agnetic (individuality)
  27. *Williams and Best classic cross-cultural study
    • 1990
    • similarity in developed and developing countries
    • more highly differentiated in Muslim countries
    • - women's role in the home
    • - gender segregation
    • supports female and male attributes
  28. attributes found by Williams & Best
    • male: dominance, autonomy, aggression, exhibition, achievement
    • female: abasement, deference, succorance, nurturance
    • note: all attributes are intercorrelated
  29. Deaux & Lewis
    • 1984
    • social roles
    • occupations
    • physical characteristics
  30. social role theory
    • sexual division of labor
    • bipolar - driven by human cognition, expressed in the literature; as you become more male, you become less female; single dimension; men and women as bipolar opposites
    • "opposite vs. other sex"
  31. male Social Roles
    Head of household; Financial provider; Leader; Responsible for household repairs
  32. male personality traits
    Independent; Active; Competitive; Makes decisions; Doesn’t give up; Self-confident; Feels superior; Stands up well under pressure
  33. male physical characteristics
    Tall; Strong; Sturdy; Broad shouldered
  34. male occupations
    Telephone installer; Police officer; Automobile mechanic; Construction worker
  35. female social roles
    Source of emotional support; Manages house; Takes care of children; Responsible for decorating house
  36. female personality traits
    Emotional; Able to devote self to others; Gentle; Helpful to others; Kind; Aware of others’ feelings; Understanding of others; Warm in relations with others
  37. female physical characteristics
    Soft voice; Dainty; Graceful; Soft
  38. female occupations
    Hairdresse; Secretary; Telephone operator; Registered nurse
  39. racism interacting with stereotypes of gender
    • early studies likely report stereotypes of European-American men and women
    • Landrine (1985) found African-American and European-American female stereotypes feminine, with exceptions
    • - european american women competent, dependent, vain, emotional, etc.
    • - african american women dirty, hostile, superstitious
  40. attributions of poverty interact with stereotypes of gender
    • Cozzarelli, Tagler & Wilkinson, 2002
    • - stereotypes of poor women more positive and family oriented than that of poor men
    • - poor men dirtier, criminal, alcoholic
    • Attributions (causes) about poverty
    • - men unmotivated, can't handle finances
    • - women had too many children, negatively affected family
  41. intersections with sexual orientation
    • Kite & Deaux (1987)
    • - similar stereotypes of gay men, straight women (r = .49)
    • - similar stereotypes of lesbians, straight men (r = .50)
    • - stereotypes of straight women and men had low correlation (r = .16)
    • Grounded in cultural assumptions
    • - nature of M-F
    • -Freudian theory
  42. categorization process underlying stereotypes
    • physical appearance
    • - feminine male faces, masculine female faces = homosexual
    • - physically androgynous photos perceived as less gender-typed and more likely to be homosexual
    • cultural beliefs about concordance of gendered attributes
    • long-standing stereotypes of homosexuals
  43. stereotypes and social change
    • Wilde & Diekman (2005)
    • - german and american undergraduates
    • - rated average man, woman from 1950, present, 2050
    • - replicated gender differences
    • - social trends differed by country
    • Supports social role theory
  44. Automaticity
    • (implicit gender stereotypes)
    • brief exposure to objects related to sex elicit male female stereotypes (ex: baseball/oven mitt)
    • IAT
    • - Greenwald and colleagues
    • - reaction time assesses strength of association
    • - reduced social desirability bias
    • - positive correlation with explicit stereotypes
    • - most  pronounced women = family, men = career
  45. the Kernel of Truth Hypothesis
    • people hold stereotypes because there is a kernel of truth
    • Swim (1994), Hall and Carter (1999)
    • Comparison = meta-analysis results
    • - participants' ratings of likelihood that women/men would engage in behaviors positively correlated w/ effect sizes
    • - over and understimations also common
    • Conclusions
    • - beliefs about men/women "in general" accurate
    • - underestimate gender differences in research
    • - large individual differences in accuracy
  46. *Why is it that we find small gender differences in the laboratory, but most bank managers are men?
    • social context is not taken into consideration
    • goal in the lab is to remove the social influences, lab is not the real world
  47. development of gender stereotypes
    • categorization begins in infancy
    • social role theory: correspondence bias
    • social learning theory: children's expectations, etc. reinforce stereotypes
    • rigidity of male gender stereotype
    • personality traits are inferred based on behavior
  48. influences on gender stereotypes
    • children's peers
    • parental behaviors
    • media
    • family environments (chores, bedroom accessories and furnishings, toys)
  49. doing gender
    how stereotypes affect how two people interacts
  50. stereotype vs. prejudice
    • stereotype: cognitive structure
    • prejudice: attitude, behavioral aspect
  51. Attitudes Toward Women's Scale
    • indicate attitudes toward women increasingly positive
    • used to measure prejudice
  52. subtle forms of prejudice
    • modern sexism
    • neosexism
    • (correlated, but distinct constructs)
  53. modern sexism
    women are great, no discrimination
  54. neosexism
    egalitarian attitudes with some negative feelings toward women
  55. stereotypes that are declining
    • "old fashioned" racism
    • sexism
    • heterosexism
  56. Ambivalent Sexism Inventory
    • ASI
    • hostile sexism
    • benevolent sexism
  57. hostile sexism
    • traditional attitudes toward women's roles
    • hostility toward women
  58. benevolent sexism
    • protective paternity
    • complementary gender differentiation
    • heterosexual intimacy
  59. protective paternity
    • take care of women
    • girls can't hold paper routes and be out after dark
    • women can't hold jobs that will expose them to radiation
  60. how hostile sexism and benevolent sexism correlate
    • conservative ideology
    • religiousity (in terms of taking dogma literally, fundamental sects)
    • gender inequality (as assessed by UN GDI and GEM)
  61. Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory
    • AMI - used less in research than ASI
    • hostility toward men
    • benevolence toward men
    • positive correlation with conservative ideology
  62. hostility toward men
    • resentment of paternalism
    • compensatory gender differentiation
    • heterosexual hostility
  63. benevolence toward men
    • maternalism
    • complementary gender differentiation
    • heterosexual intimacy
  64. how ASI and AMI correlate
    • scores positively correlated
    • gender inequality
    • traditional mate selection (males prefer younger women with good household skills; females prefer older men who are good providers)
  65. attitude-interest analysis test (M-F; Terman & Miles, 1936)
    • item selection based on sex differences
    • passive gay men = feminine
    • active lesbians = masculine
    • bipolar measure of masculinity-femininity
  66. measuring masculinity and femininity
    • attitude-interest analysis test
    • MMPI M-F Subscale
    • CPI Fe Subscale selected/rescored items from both
  67. BSRI (Bem, 1974)
    • items related by male and female American undergraduates as desirable for women or men
    • - masculinity = slightly more socially desirable for men
    • - femininity = slightly more socially desirable for women
    • orthogonal dimensions
    • not based upon sex differences
  68. orthogonal measures
    measures of M and F are independent
  69. masculinity as bipolar and orthogonal dimensions
    • x and y axis
    • rank of masculinity and femininity on scale 1 - 7
    • below 5 or above 5
    • low M and high F = traditional feminine
    • low M and low F = indifferenciated
    • high M and high F = androgeneous
    • high M and low F = traditional masculine
  70. Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence, Helmreich, & Stapp, 1975)
    • same as development of BSRI
    • refined in 1979 to broaden conceptualization of MF
    • M+ (positive instrumental behaviors)
    • M- (negative instrumental behaviors)
    • F-c (negative communion-related attributes)
    • F-va (negative verbal passive-aggressive behavior)
    • negative scales show sex differences related to mental health
  71. Criticisms of BSRI & PAQ
    • only measures instrumental and expressive behaviors; PAQ makes that assumption (despite labels)
    • influenced by ethnicity, class, situational factors (ex: American women's scores have become more masculine over time)
    • limited conceptions of masculinity and femininity
  72. qualitative research
    • addresses criticisms and attempts to assess masculinities and femininities
    • interviews of couples from Promise Keepers (Heath, 2003)
    • Lisa Diamond's longitudinal research with sexual minority women
  73. interviews of couples from Promise Keepers (Heath, 2003)
    • christian masculinity: communication skills while retaining authority from Scripture, emotionally expressive
    • function of God's will
    • masculinity as experienced in church and family
  74. Lisa Diamond's longitudinal research with sexual minority women
    • participants report changes in gendered traits and behaviors
    • attributed to situational factors, developmental processes, partners in relationships

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