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Filtration ( take place inside the nephron)
Movement of water and protein free solutes from the plasma in the glomerulus into the capsular space of the bowman capsule.
>The movement relies on osmosis, passive and active transport between the cells in the Bowman's capsule into the interstitial spaces of the cortex and medulla and then the peri-tubular blood
- >occurs mainly in the proximal convoluted tubules
- >The movement of molecules and water out of the tubules into the medulla nand corted then into the peri-tubular blood.
- >as molecule moves osmotic imbalance is present
- >this imbalance results in the movement of water from the tubules to the peri-tubular blood supply and bsck into bloodstream
- >therefore reabsorption relies on osmosis, passive and active transport
- >reverse of reabsortion
- >Secretion contributes to urine formation and urine volume
Hormonal regulation of blood volume and urine volume
Anti Diuretic Hormone (ADH)
Atrial Natriuretic Hormone (ANH)
Anti Diuretic Hormone (ADH)
- >produced in the pituitary gland
- >opposes the formation of uine by promoting the reabsorption of water back into the peri-tubular blood
- >Responds to changes in the plasma osmolality of Na+
- >works on a feeback look to maintain a balance of blood volume and blood pressure.
- >secreted by the adrenal corted located above the kidney
- >works with ADH to promote the reabsorption of water back into the vascular compartment
- > It does this by actively moving Na+ ions from the tubules into the peri-tubular blood supply to create an osmotic imbalance.
starts with renin which is released in response to changes in blood pressure
Sets off mechanism resulting in the release of aldosterone to form the adrenal cortex
Atrial natriuretic hormone
- >secreted by specialised cells in the atrial wall of the heart
- >promotes the secretion of Na+ into the tubules from the intersitial space and plasma
- >it reduces the reabsorption of water from the tubules by osmotic imbalance
- >works to oppose ADH and aldosterone.
Principle organ of urinary system?
branch of abdominal aorta that brings blood into each kidney is called?
Ureter of each kidney conducts urine inferiorly from the kidney is?
Mechanism for voiding urine begins with the voluntary relaxation of?
external sphincter muscle of the bladder
The capillary network that is fitted neatly into Bowman's capsule is?
important structure that maintains blood flow because it secretes rennin when blood pressure to the afferent arteriole drops
Urine is formed by nephron by which three processes?
Reasorption takes place means of which mechanism?
active and passive transport
which hormones is secreted by pituitary gland and has a central role in regulating urine volume?
Urine is approx 95% of?
Crystallized mineral chunks that develop in the renal pelvis or calyces are called?
Physical characteristics of normal urine
- >colour range from pale straw to deep amber
- >PH of urine is slightly acidic
- >slight odour
- >Clarity is cloudy or debris
Protein- Albumin in urine may indicate an infection due to the increased pernability of glomerular barrier.
Leukocytes is associated by UTI but may indicate more sever renal problems
Nitrates associated with infection. eg ecoli, klebiella, and pseudomnas.
Glucose indicate diabetes mellitus but can occur during pregnacy due to stress or taking corticosteroids.
excessive urine output over 2000mls
difficulty passing urine, associate with pain or discomfort.
presence of sugar in urine
Blood in urine
inability to controll the dischange of urine
Passing of urine ( urination)
Incontinence of urine at night
Protein in urine
pus in urine, urine appears cloudy
no urine voided, urine output is less than 100mls within 24 hours period
involuntary, unpredictable passage of urine in a patient with intact urinary and nervous system
voluntary or involuntary action of loss of small amount of urine (20-30mls) from bladder
- Involuntary loss of urine occuring at predictable interval.
- unaware of bladder filling
Leakage of small amount of urine caused by sudden increase in intraabdominal pressure
urge incontinence, you leak urine because the bladder muscles contract at the wrong times. Often these contractions occur no matter how much urine is in the bladder.
involuntary passage of urine after a strong urge to void