Chapter 26

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Author:
kamrunsreno
ID:
171996
Filename:
Chapter 26
Updated:
2012-09-19 19:07:38
Tags:
Biology
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Description:
Exam 1
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  1. Hierarchial classification
    • Group species into inclusive categories 
    •     Domain 
    •     Kingdom 
    •     Phylum 
    •     Class 
    •     Order 
    •     Family  
    •     Genus   
    •     Species More  
    • Inclusive 
  2. Latin Binomial
    • Binomial nomenclature 
    • –Two part name identifies all living things 
    • –Linnaeus 18th century 
    • –Generic name + specific epithet  
    • • Generic name capitalized, specific epithet not 
    • • Both names italicized or underlined 
    • • Ex. Artemisia tridentata or Artemisia tridentata 
  3. Morphological homology 
    • Similar structure due to shared ancestry 
    • • Ex. Forelimb structure of mammals (22.17) 
    • • Organisms with similar structure likely in same branch of tree (clade) 
  4. Morphological analogy
    • Similarities due to convergent evolution 
    • –Features evolved independently in similar environments  
    • • Ex. Marsupial “moles” vs. eutherian moles (26.7) 
    • –Large claws, small eyes etc. 
    • • Ex. Cacti & euphorbs
  5. Molecular Homology
    • Similar DNA due to shared ancestry 
    • • Or similar proteins, RNA etc. 
    • –Compare nucleotide sequence  
    • • More similarity indicates closer relationship 
    • • Requires computers  
    • –Large data sets (thousands of bases) 
    • –Can align similar segments
  6. Molecular Clocks
    • Can help track evolutionary time 
    • –When there is no fossil record 
    • –Radiometric dating not possible 
    • • Assuming genes evolve at similar rates 
    • • Measure number of mutations 
    • –More mutations, earlier divergence of species 
    • –Less mutations, later divergence of species
  7. Three domains of the modern tree of life
    • Bacteria: majority of known prokaryotes 
    • Archaea: prokaryotes, often in extreme environments  
    • Eukarya: all eukaryotes 

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