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  1. What is asthma?
    • > reversible disorder caused by restricted airway
    • > most common in children, and continued as adults
    • > Treatment is around educating client and make goals that serve to manage the trigger and symptoms associated with asthma attack.

    • >Chronic inflammatory condition that affects respiratory
    • system particularly the bronchioles
    • >inflammation occurs in response to triggers activated
    • by mast cell, eosinophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils.
    • >symptoms: wheezing, breathlessness, coughing, SOB, and
    • tightness in the chest.
    • >Extreme case can lead to hypoxia/decrease oxygen
    • supplies leading to respiratory failure
    • >intervention is required immediately
  2. Inspiration
    • As you breath in, the diaphragm and intercostal muscles
    • contract causing thoracic cavity to expand. The rib cage elevates and lungs expand and stretch to accommodation incoming air. Intrapulmonary volume increases.
  3. Expiration
    • As you breath out the external intercostal muscle relax, the
    • diaphragm relaxes, the rib cage descends and the lungs recoil. Intrapulmonary volume decreases and gases are forced out of the lungs
  4. Asthma triggers
    >colds and Flu viruses

    >cigarette smoke

    >exercise and activity


    >chemicals and dusts in environment

    >temperature and weather changes



    >household sprays

    >some medicines
  5. Risk factors
    >15% of Nzers are affected mostly maori’s

    • >Not confined to children, can happen at any time during
    • life span  

    >not treated immediately can result to death

    >genetic linked

    • >exposure to an increased number of allergens during
    • childhood increases risks of developing asthma
  6. diagnosis
    • >made based on Hx, physical assessment-blood tests, x ray
    • & lung function test using spirometer

    >asking the right questions is essential and obtain hx

    >What symptoms are presented and when?

    • >Ensure client have a dairy to record all symptoms occurring
    • and time, worsen

    >Record personal best peak flow measurement
  7. Peak flows
    • >very effective tool that allows person with asthma to
    • manage their symptoms by identifying when lung functioning is impaired.

    • >Measure the amount of air that is forced out of the
    • lungs when a person exhales

    >measurement is decreased during asthma attack
Card Set:

Oxygenation concept
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