Rad Science Chapter 1.txt

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RadTherapy
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Rad Science Chapter 1.txt
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2012-09-21 00:13:23
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Rad Science Chapter 1
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  1. Anything that occupies space. It is the material substance with mass of which physical objects are composed.
    Matter
  2. All matter is composed of fundamental building blocks which are arranged in various complex ways.
    Atoms
  3. The quantity of matter as described by its energy equivalence.
    Mass
  4. Measured in kilograms (kg)
    Mass
  5. This term is used when describing the mass of an object (may be considered the same as mass)
    Weight
  6. The fundalmental , complex, building blocks of matter are ______ & ______.
    Atoms & Molecules
  7. * Note *
    Although mass, the quantity of matter, remains unchanged regardless of its state, it can be transformed from one size, shape and form to another.
  8. What does SI stand for
    International System
  9. Energy is measured in
    joules (J)
  10. The ability to do work
    Energy
  11. The ability to do work by virtue of position
    Potential energy
  12. The energy of motion. It is possessed by all matter in motion
    Kinetic energy
  13. The energy released by a chemical reaction
    Chemical energy
  14. Represents the work that can be done when an electron moves through an electric potential difference (voltage)
    Electrical energy
  15. The energy of motion at the molecular level
    Thermal energy (heat)
  16. The energy that is contained within the nucleus of an atom
    Nuclear energy
  17. Type of energy that is used in X-ray imaging
    Electromagnetic energy
  18. Serves as the basis for the atomic bomb, nuclear power plants, and certain nuclear medicine imaging modalities.
    Mass-energy equivalence
  19. Mass-Energy equation
    E = mc (squared) E - energy, m - mass, and c - velocity (speed)
  20. The transfer of energy. Energy emitted and transferred through space
    Radiation
  21. Visible light, a form of electromagnetic energy, is radiated by the sun and is
    Electromagnetic radiation
  22. Matter that intercepts radiation and absorbs part or all of it is said to be ______ or _______. (Spending a day at the beach, you have been)
    Exposed or irradiated
  23. Type of radiation that is capable of removing an orbital electron from the atom with which it interacts between radiation and matter
    Ionizing radiation
  24. The orbital electron and the atom from which it was separated are called
    Ion pair
  25. The removal of an electron from an atom
    Ionization
  26. The 3 forms of electromagnetic radiation with sufficient energy to ionize are
    • X-rays
    • Gamma rays
    • Ultraviolet light
  27. * Note *
    Many types of radiation are harmless, but ionizing radiation CAN injure humans.
  28. The 2 main catagories of sources of ionizing radiation are
    • Natural environmental radiation (annual dose of approx 3 mSv) and
    • Man-made radiation (annual dose of approx 3.2 mSv)
  29. Natural environment radiation consist of 3 components
    • Cosmic rays
    • Terrestrial radiation
    • Internally deposited radionuclides(includes radon)
  30. Particulate and electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun and stars
    Cosmic rays
  31. Results from deposits of uranium, thorium, and other radionuclides in the earth
    Terrestrial radiation
  32. Mainly potassium-40, are natural metabolites, have always been with us and contribute an equal dose to each of us
    Internally deposited radionuclides
  33. Radioactive gas that is produced by the natural radioactive decay of uranium, which is present in trace quantities of the Earth. The larges natural source of environmental radiation
    Radon
  34. Constitute the largest man made source of ionizing radiation (3.2 mSv/yr)
    Diagnostic x-rays
  35. Abbreviation CT
    Computed tomography
  36. What is the percentage of our annual average radiation dose is attributable to medical imaging?
    51%
  37. During the 1870's and the 1880's, labs were investigating the conduction of cathode rays or electrons, through a large, partially evacuated glass tube known as
    Crookes tube
  38. November 8, 1895 was working in his lab and experimenting when he discovered x-rays
    Wilhelm Roentgen
  39. There are 3 general types of X-ray examinations:
    • Radiography
    • Fluoroscopy
    • Computed tomography (CT)
  40. Uses film or solid-state image receptor and usually an X-ray tube mounted from the ceiling on a track that allows the tube to be moved in any direction
    Radiography
  41. Usually conducted with an X-ray tube located under the examination table
    Flouroscopy
  42. Uses a rotating X-ray source and detector array. A volume of data is acquired so that fixed images can be reconstructed in any anatomical plane.
    Computed tomography (CT)
  43. * Note *
    To provide an X-ray beam that is satisfactory for imaging, you must supply the X-ray tube with a high voltage and an electric current
  44. Development that helped reduce exposure time and in conjunction with the glass photographic plates
    Intensifying screen
  45. Exposing 2 glass X-ray plates with the emulsion surfaces together, exposure time was halved, and the image was considerably enhanced
    Double-emulsion film
  46. * Note *
    Radiology emerged as a medical specialty because of the Shook transformer and the Coolidge X-ray tube.
  47. Abbreviation PET
    Positive Emission Tomography
  48. Abbreviation MRI
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  49. * Note *
    Because of effective radiation protection practices, radiology is now considered a safe occupation
  50. Keep radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable
    ALARA
  51. Examinations conducted with radiographic intensifying screens reduce exposure of the patient to X-ray by more than _______% compared with examinations conducted without.
    95%
  52. The standard unite of time and is based on the vibration of atoms of cesium
    Second (s)
  53. * Note *
    The same system of units must always be used when one is working on problems or reporting answers
  54. 3 very important things of the Ten Commandments of Radiation Protection
    • Time
    • Distance
    • Shielding
    • (Page 12 Box 1-2)
  55. Sometimes called speed, is a measure of how fast something is moving or, more precisely, the rate of change of its position with time
    Velocity
  56. The rate of change of velocity with time
    Acceleration
  57. Law: A body will remain at rest or will continue to move with constant velocity in a straight line unless acted on by an external force.
    Newton's First Law - Inertia
  58. The property of matter that acts to resist a change in its state of motion
    Inertia
  59. Law: The force that acts on an object is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by the acceleration produced.
    Newton's second law - Force
  60. Can be thought of as a push or pull on an object
    Force
  61. Law: For every action , there is an equal and opposite reaction
    Newton's third law - Action/Reaction
  62. A force on a body caused by the pull of gravity on it and is the product of mass and the acceleration of gravity on Earth
    Weight
  63. The product of the mass of an object and its velocity is
    Momentum
  64. In mathmetical terms, the unit of work is
    joule (J)
  65. The product of (multiplication of) of force and distance
    Work
  66. The rate of doing work; the quotient of work by time
    Power
  67. May be transformed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed
    Energy (and matter)

    • THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
    • Energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. The total amount of energy and matter in the Universe remains constant, merely changing from one form to another. 
    • (this is the basis of Einstein's theory of relativity: E=mc²)
  68. The kinetic energy of the random motion of molecules; form of energy that is very important to radio logic techs
    Heat
  69. The unit of heat; defined as the heat necessary to raise the temp of 1 g of water by 1°C
    Calorie
  70. The transfer of heat through a material or by touching
    Conduction
  71. The mechanical transfer of "hot" molecules in a gas or liquid from one place to another
    Convection
  72. The transfer of heat npby the emission of infrared radiation
    Thermal radiation
  73. The unit of radiation exposure or intensity; The kinetic energy transferred from photons to electrons ionization and excitation
    Air kerma
  74. What is RAD? gray is the unit of ______.
    Radiation Absorbed Dose
  75. The radiation energy absorbed per unit mass and has units of J/kg or gray
    Absorbed Dose
  76. Occupational radiation monitoring devices are analyzed; used to express the quantity of radiation received by radiation workers and populations
    Sievert
  77. The unit of occupational radiation exposure and effective dose
    Sievert (Sv)
  78. The unit of radioactivity; unit of quantity of radioactive material, not the radiation emitted by that material
    Becquerel (Bq)
  79. Quantity: Exposure
    Air kerma
  80. Quantity: Absorbed dose
    Gray
  81. Quantity: Effective Dose
    Sievert
  82. Quantity: Radioactivity
    Becquerel

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