receptors second messengers action potential autonomic nervous system
Terms and Questions for Exam 1
This G protein activates AC to decrease cAMP
This G protein inhibits AC to decrease cAMP
These inactivate cAMP
High levels of cAMP activate _____
This activate PLC
PLC makes __(1)____ and __(2)___
IP3 and DAG
IP3 releases ___ from storage. This acitvates ___
Ca2+ , ca depentent PKA
Inhibits calcium channels
Activates potassium channels
Activates calcium channels
ACh agonists (2)
Antagonists of nAChRs
Curare, hexamethonium, DBE, alpha bungarotoxin
Antagonists of mAChRs (2)
What terminates the release of ACh?
What moves ACh from cytoplasm to vesicle?
how is ACh synthesized?
Choline (extracellular) + Acetyla CoA (mitochondria)
The peak voltage observed during an action potential is determined in large part by the equilibrium potential for sodium. (T/F)
Constitutively open ion channels contribute to the active membrane properties of a cell . T/f?
Enzyme linked receptors have ___ transmembrane spanning regions
When photosensitive cells in the retina (specifically rods) are exposed to bright light, activation of a G protein called Gt ultimately leads to a reduction of cGMP levels in the cytosol. True//false?
Which is the auto receptor subtype for NE neurons?
PKA can be activated by: (4 choices)
1. DAG 2. cGMP 3. Calcium 4. membrane bound kinases
Synonym for parasympathetic system
The superior mesenteric ganglion contains postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
Mode of action for thalidomide
decrease in a cytokine called TNF alpha
Ca is sequestered in the Rough ER
Which signaling is this?
Signaling molecules are released into the extracellular space, but are rapidly taken up by other cells or destroyed by enzymes. Effect on cells in the local vicinity of the signaling cell
Which signaling molecule?
allows very specific and very rapid delivery of highly concentrated signaling molecules at large distances from the cell soma
Which signaling molecule?
allows relatively slow and non-specific delivery at low concentrations via the bloodstream
This binds to nACHr at NMJ and can induce paralysis
These increase the sensity of GABA receptors (2)
Target tissue and effect of vasopression
Liver, breakdown glycogen
ACh has two targets and effects
2-Smooth muscle, contraction
Target, effect of thrombin
Blood platelets, aggregation
What subunit of which receptor activates mAChR to open K channels in heart?
Beta Y of Gi
Which effectors have small non polar molecules in the mebrane?
Location and mechanism of Alpha 1 receptors
Smooth muscles & glands, activate PLC
Location and mechanism of alpha 2
Inhibits AC, feedback inhibtion of NE (autoreceptor)