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What is the function and location of the pneumotaxic center?
- Inhibits respiration (antagonist to apneustic center)
What is the function and location of the apneustic center?
- Promotes inspiration (antagonist to pneumotaxic center)
Where does regulation controlling the respiratory rhythm happen? Can it happen elsewhere?
- Medulla primarily
- Forebrain can take over breathing rhythm w/ thinking
What are the inputs to the respiratory circuits?
- Chemoreceptros to Nucleus Solitarius in Medulla.
- Lung stretch receptors (recoiling)
What is the respiratory pacemaker?
Mediated by the pre-Botzinger complex in medula
What is the specific nuclei output for inspiration and expiration
- LMN in C3-C5 to excit phrenic nerve efferent fibers to DIAPHRAGM
- LMN at thoracic levels to control inspiration/expiratory mm
What is Cheyne-stoke respiration?
Deeper breaths then shallow breathes alternating
Where is the cardiorespiratory center located?
Nucleus Solitarius in medulla
What is the input into the cardiorespiratoy center?
Chemo and baroreceptors from CN IX and X
Where is the Output from the nucleus solitarius go and do?
Spinal cord - intermediolateral column (sympathetic) -> Maintaining normal BP
Limbic system - emotional response (altered: panic attacks, physiological response)
What happens with a pontine leasion?
abnormal shivering patterns
What happens to a medullary lesion
abnormal frequency of hiccups
What does nausea and vomiting occur with brainstem?
- chemotactic trigger zone (medulla (4th ventricle)
- Serotonin stimulates afferents from Vagus, which reaches nucleus solitarus
What are some miscellaneousfucniton of the brainstem?
laughing, crying, coughing, sneezing, yawning, gaggin, comiting, swallowing.
Where does ducessation happen for the superior cebellar peduncle?
At the Midbrain
Where does the superior cebellar peduncle reach? What are the main outputs (general)?
- Red nucleus
- mainly cerebellar outputs.
Where does the middle cerebellar peduncle receive input from?
The pontine nucleus that receives input from the corticopontine fibers
Where does the inferior cebellar peducle send its input
to the cerebellum from the spinal cord.
What is the location of the reticular formation? [semi-tricky Q]
- all throughout the length of the brainstem
- central core of nuclei
- organization is diffuse; no distintive boundaries
What are the divisions of the reticular formation? and where are they?
- Rostral Reticular formation - midbrain and upper Pons (pontomesencephalic)
- Caudal reticular formation (lower pons and medulla)
What is the function of the Rostral reticular formation?
Act with nuclei in diencephalon to keep alert conscious state
What is the function of the Caudal Reticular Formation?
Act with CN nuclei and spinal cord to regulate reflexive, autonomic and motoric functions.
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