CDO 338 2.1

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  1. Four Basic Speech Processes of speech
    • respiration
    • phonation
    • articulation
    • resonation
  2. two additional systems involved in speech
    • auditory
    • neurological
  3. articulators
    • moveable - lips, mandible (lower jaw), tongue, and soft palate or velum
    • immovable - alveolar ridge, hard palate, teeth, and nose
    • cheeks
    • pharyngeal cavity
  4. most important articulator
    the tongue
  5. tongue tied
  6. cranial nerve that iinnervates the tongue
    CN XII Hypoglassal
  7. client may not be able to feel their articulators if this cranial nerve has been effected
    CN V Trigeminal
  8. phones
    sounds produced by the human vocal tract without regard to a particular language
  9. phoneme
    the smallest, nonmeaningful perceptible unit of oral language
  10. allophones
    • noncontrastive or nondistintive
    • they do not change the meaning of the word
  11. phonetics
    the study of speech sounds, their form, substance, and perception
  12. Phonology
    the study of speech sounds, speech sound production, and the rules for combining sounds in meaningful words and sentences
  13. phonetic
    the study of speech sounds, their production and acoustic properties, and the written symbols that represent them
  14. how do we describe and classify vowels
    • by the position of the tongue
    •     front / central / back
    •     high / meid / low
    • musculature is tense / lax
    • lip rounding / unrounding
  15. description of vowels from a phonetic view point
    • —articulated open configuration of the vocal tract
    • —no part of the mouth is closed
    • none of the vocal organs come so close together causing audible friction
    • —involve the vibration of the vocal cords (voicing)
    • —distinctive resonances made by varying the shape of the mouth, using the tongue and lips
  16. description of vowels from a phonological view
    • units of the sound system
    • typically occupy the middle of a syllable (nucleus)
  17. diphthongs
    two vowels produced consecutively in the same syllable by moving the artiulators smoothly from the position of one to the other so that together they serve as the nucleus syllable.
  18. consonants from a phonetic view point
    • closing movement of one the vocal organs, causing friction
    • blockage with a release of the air
    • both: the closing movement may involve lips, tongue, or throat
  19. consonants from a phonological point of view
    • units of the sound system
    • typically occupy the edges of a syllable (margins)
    • may appear in sequence (clusters)
  20. classification of consonants
    • vibration of vocal folds - voiced and voiceless
    • force - fortis (strong) and lenis (weak)
    • ue of nasal cavity
  21. 2 main categories of consonants
    • obstruents - produced with a completely or partially obstructed vocal tract
    • sonorants - produced with a relatively open tract including vowels, diphthongs, and sonorant consonants
  22. consonant classification from an articulation point of view
    • phonation - voiced/voiceless
    • manner - how the consonant is produced or amount of oral constriction
    • place - where the consonant is produced and organ of articulation creating the air obstruction
  23. speech in context
    • speech is overlapping motor movements
    • coArticulation - articulators are continually moving into position for other segments of speech
    • Assimilation - the result of coarticulation. one speech sounds becomes similar to a neighboring speech sound
  24. 6 characteristics of vowel
    • open vocal tract
    • open airstream/sounds
    • voiced
    • acoustically more intense
    • more sonority
    • syllable nuclei
  25. 7 characteristics of consonants
    • vocal tract significantly constricted
    • constricted sounds
    • mid sigittal constriction
    • voiced/unvoiced
    • acoustically less intense
    • less sonority
    • only specific consonants can function as nuclei (syllabic)
  26. definition of syllables
    • speech unit consisting of at least one vowel
    • the phonological constituent that is made up of phonetic segments of a vowel or consonant/vowel combination
  27. syllables of central to the development of
    • prosody
    • they carry the pulse of our language
  28. syllable structure
    • peak - most prominent, accoustically most intense also called the nuclei (vowel)
    • onset - sound segment before peak
    • coda - sound segments after peak (also called offset)
Card Set:
CDO 338 2.1

speech mechanism and the phonetic system
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