AN SC 310 - 4

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Author:
ebacker
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172093
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AN SC 310 - 4
Updated:
2012-09-20 00:50:33
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AN SC 310
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Lecture 4 - The Endocrine System: Endocrine Glands and Hormone Actions
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  1. Describe Endocrine Glands
    • Derived from epithelial tissue
    • Primary endocrine organs (ex. thryoid glands)
    • Secondary endocrine organs (ex. heart)
  2. What are the primary endocrine organs?
    • Hypothalamus & pituitary gland
    • Pineal gland
    • Thyroid gland & parathyroid gland
    • Thymus
    • Adrenal glands
    • Pancreas
    • Gonads
  3. Where are the hypothalamus and pituitary gland located?
    Brain, connected by the infundibulum
  4. How many lobes are in the pituitary gland of a human? ... a pig?
    2 - posterior, anterior

    3 - posterior, anterior, intermediate
  5. What are the hormones of the posterior pituitary?
    • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    • - Paraventricular nucleus
    • - Water balance and osmolarity

    • Oxytocin
    • - Supraoptic nucleus
    • - Millk ejection
    • - Uterine contractions during pregnancy
  6. What is the role of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary portal system?
    Links two capillary beds`
  7. What do Tropic Hormones do?
    Affect release of another hormone

    • Releasing hormones
    • Inhibiting hormones
  8. What is the common tropic hormone pathway?
    1. Hypothalamus - secretes tropic hormone into capillary bed, blood enters veins

    2. Anterior Pituitary - blood enters ant. pit. secretory cells through cap. beds, alters release of ant. pit. tropic hormone, ant. pit. tropic hormones enter bloodstream in cap. bed

    3. Endocrine Gland - blood travels to distant endocrine gland to trigger release of hormone
  9. What two tropic hormones are inhibitory?
    • Dopamine
    • Somatostatin
  10. What controls hypothalamic tropic hormone release?
    • Neural input
    • Hormonal - negative feedback
    • Circadian rhythm
  11. What is circadian rhythm?
    • 24 hour oscillation (sleep at night, awake during day)
    • Controlled by Suprachiasmatic Nucleus of Hypothalamus
  12. Give an example of a short loop negative feedback in the endocrine system
    Hypothalamus - Anterior Pituitary negative feedback loop
  13. Give an example of a long loop negative feedback in the endocrine system
    Hypothalamus - Adrenal Gland negative feedback loop
  14. Decribe the Pineal Gland
    Glandular tissue in brain

    • Secretes melatonin
    • - Function unknown
    • - May be involved in circadian rhythm
    • - Induces sleep
    • - Suppresses reproductive functions
  15. What are the hormones of the thyroid gland?
    • Thyroid hormones which regulate metabolism
    • T4 - tetraiodothyronin
    • T3 - triiodothyronine

    Calcitonin which regulates calcium levels in blood (decreases)
  16. What does the Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) do?
    Regulates calcium levels in blood

    • Enhances
    • - release of Ca from bones
    • - Ca re-absorption from kidneys
    • - re-absorption of Ca in intestines
  17. What does the Thymus secrete and what purpose do these secretions serve?
    • Thymosin (alpha, beta, gamma)
    • Regulates T cell funtion
    • Involved in tissue repair
  18. Where are the adrenal glands located?
    Above the kidneys
  19. What are the hormones of the Adrenal gland?
    • Adrenocorticoids
    • - Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
    • - Glucocorticoids (cortisol)
    • - Sex hormones (androgens)
  20. Describe Mineralocorticoids
    • Secreted from zonae glomerulosa
    • Regulates Na and K levels
  21. Describe Glucocorticoids
    • Secreted from zonae fasciculata and reticularis
    • Regulates body's response to stress
    • Regulates metabolism
  22. Describe sex hormones (androgens)
    • Secreted from zonae fasciculata and reticularis
    • Regulate reproductive function
    • Not main sex hormone producer, gonads are
  23. What does the Adrenal Medulla secrete?
    • Secretory cells = Chromaffin cells
    • - 80% Epinephrine
    • - 20% Norepinephrine
    • - <1% Dopamine

    Under neural control, release must be very quick - Fight or Flight
  24. What does the exocrine pancreas secrete?
    Acinar and duct cells secrete fluid and enzymes which enter digestive tract via pancreatic duct
  25. What cells are in the endocrine pancreas?
    • Islets of Langerhans
    • - Alpha cells (glucagon)
    • - Beta cells (insulin)
    • - Delta cells (somatostatin)
    • - F cells (pancreatic polypeptide)
  26. What are the gonad and what hormones do they secrete?
    • Male - testes
    • - Testosterone
    • - Androstenedione

    • Female - ovaries
    • - Estadiol
    • - Progesterone
    • - Placenta of pregnant female
  27. What are the secondary endocrine organs?
    • Heart
    • Kidneys
    • GI Tract
    • Liver
    • Skin
  28. What controls the hormone levels in blood?
    • Rate of hormone secretion
    • Amount of hormone bound to plasma proteins
    • Rate of hormone metabolism
  29. What are the sites of hormone metabolism?
    • Target cell
    • Blood
    • Liver
  30. What can lipophilic be stored in?
    Adipose tissue

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